“Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.”– George Orwell, 1984.
By the middle of the XVIth century, the prime political agenda of Europe, that has reached superiority in Sciences and Technologies but was still inferior militarily, was to free itself from the yoke and control of the “Evil” Empire of Eurasia.
The learned scholars, clergy, the monastic orders invented in the XIII-XVth centuries the phantom world of ancient Egypt, Rome, Greece, and Persia wrote their histories and populated them with the figureheads of rulers, warriors, saints, philosophers, and scientists they invented. We have special thanks to Benedictine monks who toiled from allegedly VI to XIX century in Abbeys from Ireland to Italy producing to start with works of “ancient” philosophers and “acient” Pithagorian, Peripatetic, Platonic, Neoplatonic, Sceptic, Socratics, Pluralists, Atomistq, schools, etc schools that commented each other for 500 years. Corollary: they worked hard – and reposed by praying and gardening.
The concerted effort of European aristocracy and black and white Catholic clergy, despite the bitter fights with Protestants, humanists, and scientists in the XV-XVII centuries in creating and disseminating ideas of the fictional Ancient World and Dark Ages, served this agenda. All parties taking part had their own vested interests.
The fictional Ancient World was created by black and white Catholic clergy, Protestants, humanists, and scientists by representing events of the XI-XVI centuries as ones that happened thousands of years before, according to the ancient authorities they invented and the sources they wrote under aliases.
The European aristocracy, some of which were fugitives from Byzantine (Crusades and Exoduses) and some the inheritors of Eurasian “Mongol” warlords, supported the myth of the Ancient World to justify their claims to countries they wanted to self-rule tax-free from the “Evil” Empire. Consequently, sons and grandsons of the first wave of “Mongols” fought off fresh “Mongols” attacks from the Center.
The black and white Catholic clergy, and Protestants from the countries ruled by the European aristocracy developed and supported the myth of the Ancient World to justify their own claims of being more ancient and thus closer to the origins of true Christianity (Apocalypse as seen by Astronomy) to split from the Oriental Eurasian orthodoxy.
The scientists supported the myth of the Ancient World as a safe cover for their contrarian (i.e., Giordano Bruno, Galileo) research that produced results too heretic from the point of view of Christianity (Astronomy vs History).
The medieval astronomers based their discoveries on the imaginary authority of allegedly ancient scientists like Ptolemy et al who themselves invented and used as their own pseudonyms.
The Humanists and Protestants had to develop and support the myth of the Ancient World as a safe haven for their ideas that conflicted with Christianity and aristocracy (i.e., John Wycliffe, Tyndale, John Huss, and Savonarola were burned at the stake).
“Evil” Empire of Eurasia
The consistent hypothesis of 500 – 1800 AD compressed the timeframe of world history
“First Rome” period. 500 – 800 AD. Prehistory. An ancient Egyptian kingdom Kem in the delta of the Nile, with its capital in Alexandria.
Breakthroughs in 500 – 800 AD: Polytheism. Fluvial agriculture. The invention of instruments, weapons, and hieroglyphs. Delta of Nile Proto-state grows into Kingdom State Kem and expands on Mare Nostrum coasts. Hieroglyphs written on papyri, plaster, textile, clay, and stone supports make management of the proto-state possible. Hieroglyphic writing is descriptive but unsuitable for the composition of complicated phrases and texts. Writing is difficult to learn, teach and use.
“Second Rome” period: 800 – 1000 AD. Kingdom Kem expands further to the North and the coastal Mediterranean and transforms into a proto-Empire Judea-Israel with Capital Yoros on Bosporus with themes in Europe. Reflected in consensual history as placeholders Jerusalem, Babilon, Troy, Constantinople, and Czar-Grad. The Issue with Troy
Breakthroughs in 800 – 1000 AD: Polytheism and Monotheism. The invention of iron, steel, copper, and the wheel. The invention of alphabetical writing and parchment as support for writing. The cost of parchment is prohibitive, and all supports are expensive and difficult for writing texts. The composition of complicated phrases and texts is difficult, and literature is impossible. Teaching and learning to write are difficult.
The spread of knowledge, technologies, and know-how are slow. Reflected in consensual history as supreme beings: El, Elohim, Elah, Savaoph, Yahweh, Theos, Jehovah and Adonai, Mizraim, etc..; alleged characters: Alexander the Great, Darius, Nebuchadnezzar, Euclid, Julius Caesar, Nero, Adrian, Caligula, Constantine, Ptolemy, Pharaoh, Cleopatra; etc..and alleged placeholders: Babilon, Troy, Ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, Persia, etc.
“Third Rome” 1000 – 1200 AD period: Judea-Israel rules from the capital Rome, idem Constantinople, idem Czargrad situated on Bosphorus and expands in Western, Central and Eastern Europe divided in fiefdoms ‘Thems”. It is reflected in manuscripts of XIII-XV century AD, subsequently: Troy, Rome, Jerusalem, Constantinople, Czar Grad, and Istanbul. Israel expands to Russia. Alleged name of god/supreme being: El, Elohim, Elah, Savaoph, Yahweh, Jehovah. Alleged characters: Atilla, Martell, Charlemagne, Clovis, King Arthur, Wilhelm the Conqueror, Princes Vladimir, Oleg, Ryuriks, Emperor Constantine, King Richard, etc..; The Issue with Antiquity
Breakthroughs in 1000 – 1200 AD: Polytheism transforms into Monotheism. The invention of the iron, steel, paper, stirrups, primitive and composite concretes, mathematics, astrology, and alchemy. The invention of stirrups, cavalry, and military formations. The invention of paper, parchment, alphabetic writing, religious literacy, primitive and composite concrete, mathematics, astrology, and alchemy. Polytheism transforms into pre-Christian Monotheism.
Breakthroughs 1000 – 1200 AD: start of construction of big projects, i.e., Pyramids, Sphinx, Temples, obelisks in Egypt, aqueducts, coliseums, theatres, and roads in Europe. State `Kem` transforms into state `Egypt` headed by deified Pharaohs. Construction of pyramids and decoration of temples.
Hieroglyphic writing is used for religious purposes and to describe critical events and/or religious notions on the walls and columns of temples and palaces. Creation of vocabulary of astrological and astronomical symbols allowing recording of the dates of important events.
Dates of crucial events are recorded in zodiacs and horoscopes in palaces and temples of Egypt. The original Dendera Zodiac, 6 feet in diameter, hangs in the main entrance of the Louvre, Paris. Napoleon has taken as a “souvenir” of his Egypt expedition that he dismally failed.
Monotheism transforms into Orthodox Catholic Christianity. Christian Crusades to Constantinople, Czar-Grad.
Orthodox Catholic Christianity expanded in Western, Central, and Eastern Europe and transformed into Christendom. Orthodox Christian Empire formed in Russia and colonized Central and Western Europe. It is reflected in the invasion of Huns under Attila and the migration of Germanic peoples. Religious literacy, improvement of mathematics, astrology, and alchemy.
Breakthroughs 1200 – 1300 AD: Monotheism transforms into Abrahamic pre-Christianity. The invention of cheap paper. Writing with vowels makes texts easily readable. Recording written information becomes simple. The composition of complicated phrases is possible. Long, complicated texts and literature are feasible. Teaching to write and read is easy. Dissemination of knowledge facilitated. The speed of the proliferation of ideas increases. Conflicts based on different ideas are inevitable.
Breakthroughs: Christianity becomes the prime mover. The following mutiny was caused by the conflict of religious ideas, Byzantine Emperor Andronicus, allegedly born in 1152 in Crimea, is killed (crucified) in 1185 in Jerusalem and allegedly buried on the mountain of Beikos, Constantinople, Istanbul.
Breakthrough: Pre-Christianity transforms into Orthodox Catholic Christianity with Emperor Andronicus as the prototype of Jesus Christ of the New Testament. Orthodox Catholic Christianity transforms into Christendom.
Breakthrough: Crusades. The Crusade of 1189-1192 AD and the Crusade in 1199-1204 AD to Jerusalem-Constantinople were military operations under the banner of Christianity by the subordinates and relatives of the late Emperor Andronicus. Sack of Constantinople in 1204. Movement of carriers of initial Science, Technology, and culture to Europe. Crusades and Exoduses.
Breakthrough: Religious education. Due to the powerful societal potential of the ideas of Christianity and the increased speed of proliferation and dissemination of writing and reading, religious literacy and education became possible and spread. Hundreds of monasteries, dozens of sects, schools, and religious universities spring in Christendom across Minor Asia and Europe.
Breakthrough: Orthodox Catholic Christian Empire. XII-XIV AD – Slavic and Turkic Princes of Israel, blood relatives, and subordinates of Byzantium Emperor Andronicus recreate an Orthodox Catholic Christian Empire with a Center in Great Novgorod, i.e., group of Vladimir-Suzdal-Yaroslavl-Kostroma-Moscow Golden Ring cities. Rem: Russian Czars are shown as direct inheritors of Jesus on their family tree in the Annunciation Cathedral of the Kremlin. The Issue with Czar’s Helmet, The Issue with Russian History
“Evil” Empire of Eurasia 1300 – 1500 AD. Orthodox Catholic Christianity splits into Orthodox, Catholic, Protestant, Judaic, and Islam currents. The Horde from Pacific to Atlantic
Breakthroughs: Colonization of Europe. Orthodox Catholic Christian Empire colonized and baptized Central and Western Europe. Rem: the swords, armor, and decorations with Turkic, Slavonic, Arabic, and allegedly illegible inscriptions are kept in European museums. Rem: manuscript Orthodox Slavonic Bibles used in royal coronation rituals are kept in the cathedral of Reims, France, and Nikoping, Sweden. Re: Helmets and armor of Russian Czars held in Kremlin Armory bear Quran quotes. The Issue with Czar’s Helmet
Breakthroughs: Orthodox Catholic Christian Empire proliferates into a multi-confessional and multilingual centralized and ruthless “Evil” Empire with citizens strictly divided into hereditary castes: governing, civil, military nobles (Caucasians), transportation and equine relay network (Gypsies), taxation (Jews, origin of anti-Semitism), Orthodox, Catholic or Muslim clergy of common Abrahamic root. The Issue with Great Tartary.
Breakthrough: Military superiority of the “Evil” Empire of Eurasia. Due to the overwhelming superiority and mobility of cavalry troops, strict discipline, superior administration, organization, and communication in the “Evil” Empire, the colonization and control of tribal territories or proto-states was very rapid. An equine relay network run by a caste of Gypsies and a taxation system run by a caste of Jews is set up. Blood tax’, i.e., conscription of population enforced. The Issue with Tamerlane.
The disintegration of the “Evil” Empire of Eurasia. 1500-1700 AD.
Breakthroughs: “Evil” Empire of Eurasia ruled the lands. The eventual resistance is ruthlessly crushed. The refusal of themes-fiefdoms to pay taxes due to Emperor alias Czar alias Caesar alias Khan is punished by ‘Tartar-Mongol invasions’. The Empire built castles, fortresses, and road networks for troops, a long-distance equine relay system with transportation speeds up to 30 km/hour for governance and trade (horse and horseman are changed in relays). The Empire establishes provincial capitals (Warsaw, Berlin, Munich, Paris, Rome, Prague, Vienna, London, Madrid, etc..) as the key points of the road network. The Horde from Pacific to Atlantic
Breakthroughs: Plagues. Islam. Ottoman Empire. The network of roads and trade between formerly isolated populations across the Evil Empire of Eurasia led to the spread of infectious diseases and plagues. The “Evil” Empire splits into Ottoman and Russ-Horde branches to contain the spread of infectious diseases through ruthless military containment operations. Islam splits from Christianity entirely. The Issue with Tamerlane
Breakthroughs: Rapid development in Europe. The warlords of conquering armies of the “Evil” Empire often stayed as rulers in colonized countries and hereditary their rights. After 2-3 generations, the heavy taxation by far away ‘Mongol’ Caesar alias Emperor alias Khan inspired separatist ideas for the same warlords’ inheritors.
Breakthrough: European Aristocracy. The split of Christianity into Orthodox and Catholic currents prepares the ideological ground for the separation of Europe from the Empire. The inheritors of Imperial warlords became English, German, French, and Spanish kings and formed a class of European high aristocracy, fighting dynastic wars.
Court historians invent ‘ancient’ dynasties to please the inheritors. The clergy duly explains the divine origin of royal power. Astrologists invent abundant “confirmations” thereof in the sky. Rem: all solar eclipses of Antiquity and Ptolemy described in `ancient` manuscripts turn out to be medieval. Astronomy vs. History
Europe separates step by step from the “Evil” Empire of Eurasia and splits into competing parts. England built the Royal Navy to rule the waves and turned into the enormous British Empire from a tiny, impoverished kingdom. French principalities mutate into a Monarchy that tries to rule Western Europe.
The imbroglio of 300 kingdoms of Central Europe stays under Habsburg’s umbrella of the Roman Empire of the German Nation that was neither Roman nor Empire. Spain discovered and colonized the Americas. European provinces develop arts, science & technology considerably faster than ‘The Mongolian’ Center too busy with expansion in and control of Eurasia.
Breakthroughs: the Printing Press. Propaganda. After the invention of the printing press producing cheap multiple copies of documents, the speed of information proliferation and dissemination of the art of writing, teaching, reading, and education increased by an order of magnitude. Hundreds of monasteries, thousands of schools spread literacy, and dozens of universities spread science appear across Minor Asia and Europe. Enlightenment. Propaganda becomes a powerful weapon for/in Europe. The Apocalypse as seen by Astronomy
Breakthrough: “Re-Naissance.” To confirm the divine rights of the new ‘ancient’ ruling class of Europe, learned people of the Re-Naissance invented in XIV-XVI centuries AD Ancient Greece, Rome, and their paraphernalia. Museums that “prove” ancient history with allegedly ancient articles mass-produced in Italy are created in Rome, Paris, and London. Dozens of thousands of learned monks of different orders, white and black clergy, and a new class of learned people toil for three centuries to elaborate ‘ancient’ languages and compose literature and philosophy masterpieces under resounding pseudonyms. Re: artists and sculptors produce ‘ancient’ artifacts. The Issue with Antiquity
Breakthrough: Development of Science. Under cover of allegedly pre-diluvian scientific treaties signed for their own security by glorious names of ancient astronomers, philosophers, and scientists, astrology transforms into astronomy, religion into philosophy, and alchemy into chemistry. Fearful of Inquisition, scientists work under pseudonyms. The groundwork of Science is laid. To turn witchcraft into medicine, corpses are stolen and dissected. Anatomy theatres open in universities. Rem: Now sculptors can make beautiful `ancient` Greek and Roman sculptures. Dark Ages in Medieval History
Breakthrough: Separatism in Europe. After two centuries of the ‘Mongol’ yoke, separatism took hold in Western Europe. By then, it had already invented clocks, powder, guns, paper, printing, telescope, and the microscope and sold them into the Empire. Printing plays a major role in the religious conflict in Europe. The concerted effort of Europe to escape the control of the “Evil” Empire with its crushing military superiority was inevitable. The Issue with Mongols
Breakthrough: Protestantism in Central, Western, and Northern Europe. Inheritors of ‘Mongol’ warlords in Germany supported Martin Luther’s reform of the pro-imperial Catholic Church into Protestantism. Massive pogroms of the Jewish cast of imperial taxation and the sack of numerous Catholic cathedrals and monasteries took place. The European wars of religions from 1524 to 1648. Peace of Westfalia treaty, recognition of three separate Christian traditions in the Holy Roman Empire.
Breakthrough: The Siege of Vienna in 1529 was a failed attempt of the “Evil” Empire to re-conquest Europe at the hands of its partner Ottoman Empire. That attempt failed because of the resistance of Protestant German Princes, inheritors of the warlords of the Evil Empire that conquered Europe in the XIII century.
Breakthrough: Council of Trent. In the Trent Council of 1545-1563, Black and White Catholic clergy transform the pro-imperial Orthodox Catholic Church into the Roman Catholic Church. List of forbidden authors established and ancient heretic and/or manuscripts burnt all over Europe.
Breakthrough: Roman Church changed in 1582 from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar in Europe. Writings of ‘ancient’ Roman and Greek authors are mass-produced by Benedictine order, originals are never found. Multi-volume collections of ancient Greek and Roman authors appear before original masterpieces of the “ancients” are found if found at all.
Breakthroughs: War of “Evil” Empire Dynasties. Czar Ivan the Terrible (1530-1584) character actually stands for 4 consecutive competing pretenders to the throne. European troops assure victories over Judea Kazan Khan and Tartar Khan of Crimea in the dynastic civil war. The intestine struggle of dynasties decimated over 10 000 high-ranking officers of the Russian Horde armies making the re-conquest of rebellious Europe by the “Evil” Empire unfeasible and the ensuing Great Strife therein inevitable. The Issue with Ivan the Terrible
Breakthrough: Memory of “Evil” Empire erased. Once the objective of the disintegration of reached, Europe makes a concerted effort to erase from the memory of people of the former Evil Empire the very fact of its existence. Such effort was supported by the class of European high nobility who already had their brand new ‘ancient’ history ready. Rem: Jesuit Chronology served for 300 years as the immutable basis of world history and was composed by Protestant Scaliger (1585) and Jesuit Petavius (1627). The Issue with Chronology
Breakthrough: Eurasian Czar dynasty was replaced. Great Strife in Empire of Eurasia. German Protestant princes helped the pro-European Romanov dynasty to usurp the throne of the “Evil” Empire Eurasia in 1613. The former provinces of the “Evil” Empire of Eurasia: China, Japan, Iran, and Ottoman Empires, became independent but stayed fiercely anti-European and anti-Romanov. Ottoman Empire tried the reconquest of Western Europe in 1529 and in 1689 and dismally failed. The Issue with Ivan the Terrible
Breakthrough: The Royal Navy protected a vast trade that made Britain wealthy and sparked revolutions in agriculture, industry, and finance, which changed Britain and the world forever. The Navy pioneered new sciences and reinvented our understanding of the world we live in, and made the sea and seafaring an integral part of the culture and identity of the British Empire. Britania rules the waves.
1700-1917. “Russian Empire of Eurasia”
Peter the Great started to build the New Russian Empire, modernized his part of the former “Evil” Empire up to the Urals, and moved the capital from Moscow to St Petersburg. Beats under Poltava in 1709, the King of Sweden Karl XII, another clear pretender to the Russian throne. Peter the Great left in 1725 a Testament ordering his inheritors to make the Russian Empire great again.
In 1762 Romanovs became the Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov German dynasty. In 1773-1775 the New Russian Empire crushed the Great Tartary headed by Pougatchev, the last pretender from the “Evil” Empire of Eurasia. In 1776-1796 Russian Empire expanded to Siberia, Alaska, and North Western America it couldn’t control. The Testament of Peter the Great.
History: Fiction or Science? A reconstruction of global history. The Great Empire’s legacy in Eurasia and America’s history and culture.: New Chronology; part 2 of vol.6 Paperback – October 31, 2022
Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko
(List is non-exhaustive)
- Differential Geometry and Topology
- Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York, and London.
- Variational Principles in Topology. Multidimensional Minimal Surface Theory
- Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
- Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
- Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
- Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
- The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
- Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
- Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
- Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
- Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
- USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
- Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
- The Geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
- USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
- Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
- USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
- Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics, and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
- Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
- Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
- Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
- Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
- Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
- The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
- Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
- Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
- Taylor and Francis, 2003.
- Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
- Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
- Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
- Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
- Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
- New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. The USA. Lewiston.
- Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
- Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.
- Jesus failed miracle
- Jesus, at the Nazareth school
- Jesus secret operation
- Jesus Fake Wine Plot
- Russians Convert Pope
- Christmas USA bailout
- Hell freezes soon
- The Bible Who is Who
- Jesus vs. Devil computer match
- Secret Service of Jesus
- A.I. needs its own dirt ASAP
- Noah’s Ark makes money
- Alaska saves the US from the default
- The Issue with ‘Troy’
- The Great Wall. History of China Copied on Europe and Byzantium
- ‘Ancient China’ is a Misunderstanding at Best
- Swords Cut Through the Mystery of the Coronation Mantles
- The Quadruple Baptism of Russia
- Maps & Coins of the Empire Eurasia
- Why and When the Crusades?
- The Issue with British History
- Could the Czars Read Arabic?
- Ancient USA Issues
- Double Tamerlane
- Terrible Ivans
- Horde from Pacific to Atlantic
- Russia at the Crossroads
- The Issue with the Dark Ages
- Astronomy vs. History