Refutation of the New Chronology in Wikipedia

“History is a pack of lies about events that never happened told by people who weren’t there.” – George Santayana, American philosopher (1863-1952)

New Chronology theory developed by Dr. Prof. Fomenko et al following the input of NASA astrophysicist Dr. Robert R. Newton reduces the timeline of human civilization to 1000 years taking into account only irrefutably dated events.

Moderators-historians throw out the baby toolbox of the New Chronology mathematical, statistical, and logical methods together with the Sacro sacred Neutral Point of View (NPoV) rule of Wikipedia.

Continue reading “Refutation of the New Chronology in Wikipedia”

CRITICS

US research of earth-moon mechanics by late NASA astrophysicist Dr.Robert Newton leads mathematicians Dr.Fomenko et al to a breakthrough in the chronology of world history. The timeline of civilization based on only irrefutably dated events and artifacts shrinks drastically to 1000 years.

New Chronology theory of Dr. Fomenko and the team has been universally rejected by non-scientists mainstream scholars of history, who branded it not only as pseudo-historic but also as pseudoscience!

Nothing to be astonished about as Dr.Fomenko has found and stepped on the sore fingers of historians, be they British, Russian, American, German, Italian, Spanish, or Chinese ones. Etc..

As a sign of recognition of the special role of the English historians who consider themselves the true scribes of World History, the cover of the present books portrays Tintoretto’s Jesus Christ crucified on Big Ben.

The Russian historians brand it all as pseudoscience: because Dr. Fomenko asserts that there was no such thing as the Tartar and Mongol invasion followed by over two centuries of slavery, providing a formidable body of documental evidence to prove his assertion.

The so-called ‘Tartars and Mongols’ were the actual ancestors of the modern Russians, living in a trilingual state with Arabic and Turkic used as freely as Russian. Moreover,  Russian historians suffer having lost, Ghengis Khan, Tamerlane, and Alexander the Great.

The ancient Russian state was governed by a double structure of civil and military authorities and the hordes were actually professional armies with a tradition of lifelong conscription (the recruitment being the so-called ‘blood tax’). Their ‘invasions’ were punitive operations against the regions that attempted tax evasion.

Dr. Prof Fomenko proves that official Russian history is a blatant forgery concocted by a host of German scholars brought to Russia by the usurper dynasty of the Romanovs. Their ascension to the throne was the result of a conspiracy, so they charged these German imported historians with the noble mission of making Romanov’s reign look legitimate.

As Fomenko blows consensual Russian history to smithereens, he successfully removes a crucial cornerstone from underneath the otherwise impeccable edifice of World History.

Fomenko adds insult to injury, wiping out one by one: Ancient Rome: the foundation of Rome in Italy is dated to the 14th century A. D., Ancient Greece and its numerous poleis, which he identifies as the medieval crusader settlements on the territory of Greece.

Ancient Egypt: the pyramids of Giza become dated to the 11th to 14th century A. D. and identified as the royal cemetery of the Global “Mongolian” Empire, no less. The civilization of Ancient Egypt is irrefutably dated to the 11th to 15th century A. D. with the aid of the ancient Egyptian horoscopes cut in stone, like an enormous Dendera horoscope that hangs in the main entrance to the Louvre museum in Paris. He was the first one to decipher and date unambiguously all such horoscopes, coming up with medieval dates in every case.

Fomenko wipes out the Ancient History of China outright. No such ancient history. Period. The compilation of the so-called Ancient Chinese History is reliably datable to the 17th 18th century only. It is perfectly recognizable as Ancient European history, reworked and transcribed in hieroglyphs as yet another historical transplantation, this time performed on Chinese soil by the loving Jesuit hands.

The Chinese are the next in line to go berserk. Chinese history is inevitably bound to get both more ancient and more eventful, proportionally to the growing involvement of China in world affairs. Chinese historians will keep on finding valid proof of prehistoric Chinese spaceflights until the Politburo orders them otherwise.

Islam with all its key figures appeared as late as 15th-16th century A. D. as a branch of proto-Christianity. This is amply illustrated by the imagery of Prophet Mahomet, Archangel Gabriel, Heaven, and Hell of this period. In today’s Islam, all imagery of the things living is taboo.

Arabic historians may find consolation in the crucial historical role of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th-17th century. The trouble is that this empire was initially a proto-Christian state, with Hagia Sophia identifiable as the Temple of Solomon, according to Fomenko!

We can only guess if the acquisition of Alexander the Great (a Macedonian and a Christian!) as the founder of the Muslim World Empire will make Fomenko’s theories more acceptable to the Arabic mainstream. He certainly does not spare any holy cows at all, claiming The Stone of Qa’Aba in Mecca to contain the lost Arch of the Covenant.

The history of religions according to Fomenko looks as follows: the pre-Christian period (before the 11th century and Jesus Christ ), Bacchic Christianity (11th to 12th century, before and after Jesus Christ), Jesus Christ Christianity (12th to 14th century), and its subsequent mutations (15th to 17th) into Orthodox Christianity, the Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, Buddhism, and so on…

Saint Augustine was quite prescient when he said: “be wary of mathematicians,.. particularly when they speak the truth.” Henry Ford once said: “History is more or less bunk!” Prominent mathematician Anatoly Fomenko not only proved it for a fact but as a true scientist tried to upgrade it into rocket science.

Fake Babilon Eclipses

The horoscopes found in Sumerian/Babylonian tablets do not contain sufficient astronomical data; consequently, they have solutions every 30–50 years on the time axis and are therefore useless for purposes of dating.

The vocabulary of Babylonian astronomical symbols once applied to clay tablets don’t allow for the extraction of unique dates of eclipses. Astronomical data therein contained is not sufficient for unique dating.

Either they’re not enough symbols allowing for astronomical interpretation of the symbols to change from one clay tablet to another. The clay tablets contain data about eclipses visible in Babylon that could have taken place every 30-40 years, therefore don’t allow their exact pinpointing on the time axis.

An eclipse can easily be found for each allegedly ancient event mentioned in a clay cylinder or tablet of unknown age.  Consequently, the dates of eclipses are attached in a circular manner.

Anyway, was put to their use by historians, new science brand archeoastronomy delivers if historians give the archeoastromers a clay tablet or cylinder and an idea of age, they date “irrefutably” with an eclipse.

Dr. Stephenson argues: ancient dates of Babilon eclipses coincide with dates of Babilon eclipses described in Ptolemy’s Almagest who was a late medieval phantom cover for Tycho Brahe and Kepler but forgets to mention that Almagest composed in XVI cy describes events of X-XVI centuries. Circulus Vicious.

Poor astronomical data in Babylon – abundant astronomical data in Egypt

The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy Hardcover – September 1, 1977 by Professor Robert R. Newton

Has history been tampered with?

atf-7volumes-jc-667

 

Refutation of the article in Wikipedia about the New Chronology

 

History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6) Table of Contents V6

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology.Multidimensional Minimal SurfaceTheory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • The geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

More blogs:

 

00 Superagent Czar Peter

Siege of Vienna

Original Czar Peter went to Europe for the first time in 1697 with a Grand Embassy to seek a settlement with the European monarchs and the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire laid siege on Vienna in 1683. How to stop the Ottoman sultan from taking Vienna?

 

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "grand embassy czar peter"

The ensuing war of Western Europe with the Empire lasted until Czar Peter alias returned home in 1699. This Embassy was scheduled to take a couple of weeks only. Nobody from the Russian Grand Embassy returned back home.

 

 

 

Peter replaced

The King of England in concert with Kings of France, Austria, and Holland replaces the Russian Czar Peter with his look-alike super-agent in order to stop the imminent Russian and Ottoman invasions. This look-alike of Russian Czar Peter was an officer of the Ost-Indian-Company.

 

Peter carpenterBrand new Czar Peter changed his agenda completely and started traveling to Germany, Holland, and England. He worked as a carpenter for 4 months in the shipyard of the Dutch East Indian company in the construction of a ship “Peter and Paul” allegedly especially laid down for him.

 

 

StreltzyCzar Peter met with King William III, visited Greenwich and Oxford, and saw a Royal Navy Fleet Review at Deptford. He had to rush home from England to crush the rebellion of the Streltsy Czar’s guard and to punish ruthlessly the mutineers. Weeks before his return, the Russian Army easily and bloodlessly crushed the rebellion.

 

Streltzy executionUpon his arrival, Czar Peter ordered that 1,200 Streltsy rebels be tortured and executed (a couple of dozen by Czar`s own hand). As a warning to future conspirators, their bodies were publicly exhibited. Peter reformed Russia to the hilt.

 

 

The Chronology Issuepeter fm europepeter to europe. Czar Peter went to Europe as a young man of 25 to sue for peace but returned home after 2 years another man of 40 years that mastered shipbuilding and a prize saber fight. The improved version of czar Peter smoked, spoke Russian with a German accent, and ordered all to call him Great from now on.

 

image1

Sophia sisterHis own family did not recognize him; consequently, he sent his wife Eudoxia to a monastery.

 

 

Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia.jpgpeter to europePeter disbanded the Czar`s guard of Streltsy that supported his half-sister Sophia who pretended to the throne. Actually, he made her a nun and sent her to a monastery too.

 

 

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "boyars to cut beards"Czar Peter ordered the nobility of boyars to cut beards, smoke tobacco, and dance ballet. Peter, once he became the Great one, beheaded the old imperial guard, created the modern land army that won, and built a fleet that sank.

 

 

avvacoumBetter yet, Czar Peter reformed the Orthodox church into total submission. Old Russian Orthodox Church called him Antichrist, so he created a Church Council Synod and proclaimed himself its head. This council had reformed the Russian Church into oblivion. Most of the stubborn Orthodox crowd was simply burnt alive to save their souls.

 

 

Karl xiiPeter performed a live trial of this new army of the king of Sweden, Karl XII, who also wanted to usurp the Russian throne too. Peter beat Karl’s army, rumored to be the best of this time in Europe into pulp in Poltava, Ukraine. Peter the Great promoted himself to the Emperor of Russia.

 

 

 

 

 

Katerina IHigh European aristocracy didn’t let Czar Peter marry in. Peter has raised a merchant military convoy woman Marta Skowrońska to Emperess Ekaterina I. He took her from his general, and the latter took Marta-Katerina from his caporal.

 

Russia paid a steep price for his reforms in blood, sweat, and tears. Peter did not quite succeed in his brazen reforms, so he left a Will ordering the Russian Empire to reconquer Europe again.

 

Europe vs RussiaFor the Dutch Czar Peter, the European customs were in all respects superior to Russian traditions. He ordered the German historians imported to Russia to found a Russian Academy and to rewrite Russian history in line with the consensual one practiced in Europe.

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "red square moscow"Czar Peter Great literally ruined Russia, lost at least a quarter of its population, tried to break into Europe, and made Russia into an awkward upstart and a laughing stock of Europe.

 

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "saint petersburg"For his own security, he moved the capital of Russia from Moscow to St Petersburg. The big idea was to build a northern Venice. The new capital was not only a window to Europe but a backdoor to Europe, just in case.

 

 

 

The monument glorifying the deeds of Russian Czar Peter Great was erected in 1997 and is a 98-meter-high (322 ft). Initially, it was designed by the Georgian designer Zurab Tsereteli as a monument for Columbus in New York to commemorate 500 years of the discovery of America. Russian post office printed millions of stamps but  New York said NIET, i.e., many thanks, but NO!!!  

 

 

 

 

 

Peter Moscow

Sculptor Zereteli morphed Columbus into Great Czar Peter to commemorate 300 years of the Russian Navy that took 100 years to hit the ocean waves.  It weighs around 1,000 tons and contains 600 tons of stainless steel, bronze, and copper.

The statue has courted controversy and was voted the tenth ugliest building in the world. Muscovites were skeptical about the whole idea: why pay tribute to Peter the Great, who loathed Moscow and moved the capital to St Petersburg.

 

 

 

 

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Czar Peter equestrian statue"Moscow authorities, keen to get rid of the Peter the Great statue, offered to relocate it to Saint Petersburg, but this offer was refused by the latter as they already have a Dutch Czar Peter equestrian statue. 

 

Better yet,  to crown it all, the Russians are still taught by historians that Czar Peter was an authentic Russian!

 

Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past. — George Orwell, 1984

Has history been tampered with?

Refutation of the article from Wikipedia

atf-7volumes-clock-1024x576-jc-e1489076744403

Critics

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V6 

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology.Multidimensional Minimal SurfaceTheory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • Geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. The USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

More blogs:

Radiocarbon

ARE RADIOCARBON DATINGS TO BE TRUSTED?

The most popular method claiming the capability of dating ancient artifacts independently is the radiocarbon method. However, the accumulation of radiocarbon datings has exposed the difficulty of the method’s application.

The intensity of atmospheric radiation is affected by many cosmic factors. The radioactive carbon isotope production rate should also vary, and one needs to find a method that would take these variations into account. Apart from that, over the period when highways and industrial plants have been introduced by the civilization, a gigantic amount of carbon from the combustion of wood, coal, oil, turf, oil shales, and their products emanated into the atmosphere.

How does this atmospheric carbon affect the production of its radioactive isotope? In order to get veracious datings, one has to introduce complex corrections into calculations that reflect the changes in the content of the atmosphere over the last millennium. This issue, as well as a number of technical difficulties, casts a shadow of doubt over the precision of many radiocarbon datings.

W. F. Libby, the author of the method, wasn’t a historian and did not question the veracity of the Scaligerian datings, which had been used for the justification of his method. W. F. Libby had a priori been certain of the veracity of Scaligerian datings.

He wrote that they “…had no contradictions with the historians in what concerned ancient Rome and Egypt. We did not conduct anything in the way of extensive research related to this epoch [sic! ], since its chronology, in general, is known to the archaeologists a lot better than whatever our methods could estimate, so the archaeologists were doing us a favor providing specimens [which are actually destroyed, being burned in the radiocarbon measurement process”.

This confession of Libby’s tells us a lot since the deficiencies of Scaligerian chronology directly concern the regions and epochs that he and his team “did not research extensively enough.”

In what concerns the several reference measurements that were conducted on ancient artifacts, the situation is as follows. The radiocarbon dating of the Egyptian collection of J. H. Breasted “suddenly discovered the third object that we analyzed to have been contemporary,” according to Libby. “It was one of the findings… considered… to belong to the V dynasty [2563-2423 b.c., or roughly four millennia before our time]. It has proved a heavy blow indeed”.

Why could it have been such a blow? The physicists appear to have restored the veracious dating of the Egyptian specimen, proving the old one to have been wrong. What’s the problem with that?

The problem is, of course, the simple fact that any such dating would prove a menace to the Scaligerian chronology. Carrying on in that vein would lead Libby to compromise the entire history of ancient Egypt. The specimen that Libby had been careless enough to have claimed as modern had to be called a forgery and disposed of, which is only natural since the archaeologists could not have possibly let the heretical thought of the XVI-XVII century a.d. (considering the method’s precision of +/-1000 years) origin of the “ancient” Egyptian finding enter their minds.

The evidence that the proponents of the method used for proving the veracity of their method is rather insubstantial, with all the indications being indirect, the calculations imprecise, and the interpretation ambiguous, the main argument being the radiocarbon datings of the specimens whose age is known for certain is used for reference… Every time referential measurements are mentioned, everybody quotes the results of the first referential datings that were obtained for a very limited number of specimens
[sic!]”

Libby recognizes the absence of substantial referential statistics. Together with the millenarian dating deviations mentioned above (explained as a consequence of a series of forgeries), we may thus question the very validity of the method as used for dating specimens belonging to the period that we’re interested in, covering the two millennia preceding our century. This discussion does not concern the applicability of the method for geological purposes, however, where millenarian deviations are considered insubstantial.

W. F. Libby writes that “there was no deficiency in materials belonging to the epoch preceding ours by 3700 years for checking the precision and the dependability of the method”. However, there is nothing here to compare radiocarbon datings to, since there are no dated written documents dating from those epochs. Libby also informs us that his historian acquaintances “are perfectly certain of the veracity of the datings referring to the last 3750 years, however, their certainty does not spread as far as the
events that precede this era”.

In other words, the radiocarbon method has been used most extensively for a period of time that doesn’t allow the verification of the results by any other independent method, which makes life a lot easier for historians.

Could it be that the errors of the method are rather insubstantial and allow for an approximate dating of the specimens belonging to the last two or three millennia?
The state of affairs appears to be a graver one. The errors of radiocarbon dating are too great and too chaotic. They can amount to several millennia in what concerns contemporary and medieval objects.

Bill Bryson adds his grain of salt

Chicago in the 1940s was the place to be, Willard Libby was in the process of inventing radiocarbon dating allowing scientists to get an accurate reading of the age of bones and other organic remains something they had never been able to do before up to this time the oldest reliable dates went back no further than the first dynasty in Egypt about 3000 BC no one could confidently say for instance when the last ice sheets had retreated or at what time in the past the cro-magnon people had decorated the caves of Lascaux in France Libby’s idea was so useful that to historians he would be awarded by historians a Nobel prize for it in 1960  it was based on the realization that all living things have within them an isotope of carbon called carbon which begins to decay at a measurable rate the instant they die.

Carbon 14 has a half-life that is the time it takes for half of any sample to disappear of about 5 600 years so by working out how much of a given sample of carbon had decayed Libby could get a good fix on the age of an object though only up to a point after eight half-lives only 0.39 percent of the original radioactive carbon remains which is too little to make a reliable measurement, so radiocarbon dating works only for objects up to 40 000 or so years old.

Just as the technique was becoming widespread certain flaws within it became apparent. To begin with, it was discovered that one of the basic components of Libby’s formula known as the decay constant was out by about three percent by this time, however, thousands of measurements had been taken throughout the world, therefore rather than redate every one, scientists decided to keep the inaccurate constant. Thus Tim Flannery notes every raw radiocarbon date you read today is given as too young by around three percent the problems didn’t quite stop there.

It was also quickly discovered that carbon 14 samples can be easily contaminated with carbon from other sources a tiny scrap of vegetable matter, for instance, that has been collected with a sample and not noticed, albeit for younger samples those under 20 000 years or so slight contamination does not always matter so much but for older samples, it can be a serious problem because so few remaining atoms are being counted.

In the first instance, to borrow from Flannery is like miscounting by a dollar when counting to a thousand in the second it is more like miscounting by a dollar when you only have two dollars to count. Libby’s method was also based on the assumption that the amount of carbon 14 in the atmosphere and the rate at which it has been absorbed by living things has been consistent throughout history, in fact, it hasn’t been.

We now know that the volume of atmospheric carbon 14 varies depending on how well or not the earth’s magnetism is deflecting cosmic rays and that can vary significantly over time, this means that some carbon 14 dates are more dubious than others.  Among the more dubious are dates just around the time that people first came to the Americas which is one of the reasons the matter is so perennially in dispute.

Finally and perhaps a little unexpectedly readings can be thrown out by seemingly unrelated external factors such as the diets of those whose bones are being tested one recent case involved the long-running debate over whether syphilis originated in the new world or the old. Archaeologists in hull found that monks in a monastery graveyard had suffered from syphilis but the initial conclusion that the monks had done so before Columbus’s voyage was cast into doubt by the realization that they had eaten a lot of fish which could make their bones appear to be older than in fact they were. The monks may well have had syphilis but how it got to them and when remained tantalizingly unresolved.

Has history been tampered with?

Refutation of the article from Wikipedia

atf-7volumes-clock-1024x576-jc-e1489076744403

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

New Chronology “Do we know our history” (1st episode of 24)

New Chronology “What the story is based on” (episode 2 of 24)

New Chronology “Truth Can Be Calculated” (episode 3 of 24)

New Chronology “Alchemy of the Pyramids” (episode 4 of 24)

New Chronology “The Mystery of the Egyptian Zodiacs” (episode 5 of 24)

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York, and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology.Multidimensional Minimal SurfaceTheory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • The geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. The USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

More blogs:

New Little Ice Age today

Don’t worry about the climate change that happens due to human activity, worry about the New Little Ice Age (NLIA) we are already in. Due to it, we have the rising instability of climate, increased volcanic activity, floods, social unrest instability that started in 2015 will continue for the next 25 years. Yes, humans are very much capable of spoiling the air they breathe, reducing the biodiversity where they nest but they are unable to change the climate on the planet.

The climate change caused by combustion engines, airplane flights, diesel tractors, and agriculture — has virtually no measurable impact on the temperature of the planet. The numerous pseudoscience studies allegedly prove the contrary result from generous grants from the interested third parties. Corollary:  Climate change due to human activity is a scare.

According to New Chronology, the timeline based on irrefutable facts and artifacts of Civilization does not exceed 1000 years. This theory does not cancel events, Pyramids, Great Walls, etc. but points to their more probable positions on the time axis.

Fact: Radiocarbon 14C dating is wrong as its calibration curve is based on samples delivered by Egyptologists of Alabama University who gave alleged age that suited them for samples. Historians have smuggled consensual chronology into the radiocarbon dating method. The Dendrochronology dating for the European chain of samples is statistically nonrepresentative prior to the XVIth century and is limited to 1200 years. Therefore their cross-calibration with radiocarbon is erroneous per see.

The radiocarbon method elaborated in 1945-49 by Dr.Libby compares the number of atoms of radioactive isotope C14 in an organic ‘ancient’ sample to be dated to the number of atoms of C14 in the same material today. The precision of the method is extremely sensitive to the impurities contained in the sample. The obtained age of the ‘ancient’ sample depends on the level of radioactive isotope C14 in the ‘ancient’ as well as the level of radioactive isotope C14 in ‘modern. Both levels are not stable and depend on the intensity of cosmic rays that interact with atmospheric nitrogen. The older a sample is, the fewer C14 atoms there are to be detected because the half-life of C14  (the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is about 5,730 years.
This method had initial exactitude at best of +/-100 years that turned into +/- 1000 years for the timeframe of A.D.  due to the unknown quantities of CO2 during industrial revolutions of the last 200 years.

 

A-H bomb testBetter yet, the unknown quantities of the isotope C14 were added to the atmosphere of Earth as a result of 499 tests of A and H-bombs by the USA, USSR, France, UK, China till 1963.

Corollary: climate data from consensual world history of alleged Ancient Rome, Greece, Persia, India, China in models forecasting future climate changes is irrelevant because of the erroneous chronology of the latter. Use in your studies only the data from ice probes from Greenland and the Antarctic, from ocean floor sediments.

Following the end of the Ice Age about 10 000 years ago human hunter-gatherers form clans and tribes in the deltas of the rivers of the Northern Hemisphere that were propitious for the survival and multiplication of species.

egypt stateancient kingsIn the timeframe of approximately 10 000 years due to the selective competition between clans and tribes, the populations of deltas reach by 500 AD  the social level of the proto-states.

 

Ice age warm ageNew Chronology strongly correlates with climate cycles in Europe of the last millennium confirmed by the ice probes from Greenland. Little Ice Age of 500-800 A.D. blocked the progress in Northern and Central Europe, the Warm Age of 800-1350 A.D. made accelerated progress and expansion of Civilization possible.

MutinyLittle Ice Ages in 1350-1850 A.D. pushed Europeans into a chain of religious, social,  industrial, commercial, transformations and revolutions.

 

Solar cyclesThe coincidence of a minimum of sunspots during the 11-year solar activity cycle and Milankovitch orbital cycles starting in 2019 suggest that facilitates the arrival of a new Little Ice Age, horrendous climate instability, floods, earthquakes, and increased volcanic activity in the 2019-2030 period.

Milankovich cyclesMilankovitch cycles point to changes in the amount and location of solar radiation reaching the Earth. This is known as solar forcing. The changes were experienced at 65° north due to the great amount of land at that latitude. Landmasses change temperature more quickly than oceans.

 

disorder publicThe probability of the religious, social,  industrial, commercial, transformations, upheavals, and revolutions for populations of the Americas and Eurasia in the period 2019-2030 is very considerable.

 

New Little Ice has started?

Dr. H.I. Abdussamatov

Pulkovo Observatory of the RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia

Abstract

Since 1990, the Sun has been in the declining phase of the quasi-bicentennial variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). The decrease in the portion of TSI absorbed by the Earth since 1990 has remained uncompensated by the Earth’s long-wave radiation into space at the previous high level because of the thermal inertia of the world’s oceans. As a result, the Earth has, and will continue to have, a negative average annual energy balance and a long-term adverse thermal condition.

The quasi-centennial epoch of the new Little Ice Age has started by the end of 2015 after the maximum phase of solar cycle 24. The start of a solar grand minimum is anticipated in the solar cycle 27 ± 1 in 2043 ± 11 and the beginning of the phase of deep cooling in the new Little Ice Age in 2060 ± 11. The gradual weakening of the Gulf Stream leads to stronger cooling in the zone of its action in western Europe and the eastern parts of the United States and Canada. Quasi-bicentennial cyclic variations of TSI together with successive very important influences of the causal feedback effects are the main fundamental causes of corresponding alternations in climate variation from warming to the Little Ice Age.

Has history been tampered with?

atf-7volumes-clock-1024x576-jc-e1489076744403

Refutation of the article from Wikipedia

History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V6

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology. Multidimensional Minimal Surface Theory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry. Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • The geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

New Little Ice Age: Climate craze, social chaos, riots

Refutation of the article from Wikipedia

Don’t worry about the climate change, that happens due to human activity, worry about the New Little Ice Age (NLIA) we are already in. Due to it, we already have the rising instability of climate, increased volcanic activity, floods, social unrest instability that started in 2015 will continue for the next 25 years.

Climate change caused by combustion engines, airplane flights, diesel tractors, and agriculture — has virtually no measurable impact on the temperature of the planet. The numerous pseudoscience studies allegedly prove the contrary result from generous grants from the interested third parties. Corollary:  Climate change due to human activity is a hoax.

According to New Chronology, the timeline based on irrefutable facts and artifacts of Civilization does not exceed 1000 years. This theory does not cancel events, Pyramids, Great Walls, etc. but points to their more probable positions on the time axis.

Fact: Radiocarbon 14C dating is wrong as its calibration curve is based on samples delivered by Egyptologists of Alabama University who gave alleged age that suited them for samples. Historians have smuggled consensual chronology into the radiocarbon dating method. The Dendrochronology dating for the European chain of samples is statistically unrepresentative prior to the XVIth century and is limited to 1200 years. Therefore their cross-calibration with radiocarbon is erroneous per se.

The radiocarbon method elaborated in 1945-49 by Dr.Libby compares the number of atoms of radioactive isotope C14 in an organic ‘ancient’ sample to be dated to the number of atoms of C14 in the same material today. The precision of the method is extremely sensitive to the impurities contained in the sample. The obtained age of the ‘ancient’ sample depends on the level of radioactive isotope C14 in the ‘ancient’ as well as the level of radioactive isotope C14 in ‘modern. Both levels are not stable and depend on the intensity of cosmic rays that interact with atmospheric nitrogen. The older a sample is, the fewer C14 atoms there are to be detected because the half-life of C14  (the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is about 5,730 years.
This method had initial exactitude at best of +/-100 years that turned into +/- 1000 years for the timeframe of A.D.  due to the unknown quantities of CO2 during industrial revolutions of the last 200 years.

 

 

A-H bomb testBetter yet, the unknown quantities of the isotope C14 were added to the atmosphere of Earth as a result of 499 tests of A and H-bombs by the USA, USSR, France, UK, and China till 1963.

Corollary: climate data from consensual world history of alleged Ancient Rome, Greece, Persia, India, and China in models forecasting future climate changes is irrelevant because of the erroneous chronology of the latter. Use in your studies only the data from ice probes from Greenland and the Antarctic, from ocean floor sediments.

Following the end of the Ice Age about 10 000 years ago human hunter-gatherers form clans and tribes in the deltas of the rivers of the Northern Hemisphere that were propitious for the survival and multiplication of species.

egypt stateancient kingsIn the timeframe of approximately 10 000 years due to the selective competition between clans and tribes, the populations of deltas reach by 500 AD  the social level of the proto-states.

 

Ice age warm ageNew Chronology strongly correlates with climate cycles in Europe of the last millennium confirmed by the ice probes from Greenland. Little Ice Age of 500-800 A.D. blocked the progress in Northern and Central Europe, and the Warm Age of 800-1350 A.D. made accelerated progress and expansion of Civilization possible.

 

MutinyLittle Ice Ages in 1350-1850 A.D. pushed Europeans into a chain of religious, social,  industrial, and commercial, transformations and revolutions. Very fresh air pushed the Europeans to invent and conquer while people from subtropics stayed behind.

 

 

Solar cyclesThe coincidence of minimum of sunspots during the 11-year solar activity cycle and Milankovitch orbital cycles starting in 2019 suggest that facilitates the arrival of a new Little Ice Age, horrendous climate instability, floods, earthquakes, and increased volcanic activity in the 2019-2030 period.

Milankovich cyclesMilankovitch cycles point to changes in the amount and location of solar radiation reaching the Earth. This is known as solar forcing. The changes were experienced at 65° north due to the great amount of land at that latitude. Landmasses change temperature more quickly than oceans.

 

disorder publicThe probability of the religious, social,  industrial, and commercial, transformations, upheavals, and revolutions for populations of the Americas and Eurasia in the period 2019-2030 is very considerable.

 

New Little Ice has started?

Dr. H.I. Abdussamatov

Pulkovo Observatory of the RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia

Abstract

Since 1990, the Sun has been in the declining phase of the quasi-bicentennial variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). The decrease in the portion of TSI absorbed by the Earth since 1990 has remained uncompensated by the Earth’s long-wave radiation into space at the previous high level because of the thermal inertia of the world’s oceans. As a result, the Earth has, and will continue to have, a negative average annual energy balance and a long-term adverse thermal condition.

The quasi-centennial epoch of the new Little Ice Age has started at the end of 2015 after the maximum phase of the solar cycle 24. The start of a solar grand minimum is anticipated in the solar cycle 27 ± 1 in 2043 ± 11 and the beginning of the phase of deep cooling in the new Little Ice Age in 2060 ± 11. The gradual weakening of the Gulf Stream leads to stronger cooling in the zone of its action in western Europe and the eastern parts of the United States and Canada. Quasi-bicentennial cyclic variations of TSI together with successive very important influences of the causal feedback effects are the main fundamental causes of corresponding alternations in climate variation from warming to the Little Ice Age.

Has history been tampered with?

atf-7volumes-clock-1024x576-jc-e1489076744403

Critics

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V6 

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York, and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology. Multidimensional Minimal Surface Theory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • The geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. The USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

More blogs:

A.I. Memes

meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture — often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme.

A meme acts as a unit for carrying ideas, symbols, melodies, or practices, that can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomena with a mimicked theme. The memes are similar to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate, and respond to selective pressures.

Memes are a viral phenomenon that may evolve by natural selection in a manner similar to that of biological evolution through the processes of variation, mutation, competition, and inheritance, each of which influences a meme’s reproductive success.

Memes spread through the behavior that they generate in their hosts. Memes that propagate less prolifically may become extinct, while others may survive, spread, and (for better or for worse) mutate. Memes that replicate most effectively enjoy more success and some may replicate effectively even when they prove to be detrimental to the welfare of their hosts.

Developments in neuroimaging may make the empirical study possible. The memes should be considered as living structures, not just metaphorically, they are physically residing in the brain. The word meme originated in Richard Dawkins’s 1976 book The Selfish Gene, inspired by the work of geneticist L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, anthropologist F. T. Cloak, and ethologist J. M. Cullen.

The evolution depended not on the particular chemical basis of genetics, but only on the existence of a self-replicating unit of transmission—in the case of biological evolution, the gene. The meme exemplified another self-replicating unit with potential significance in explaining human behavior and cultural evolution.

The possibility that ideas were subject to the same pressures of evolution as were biological attributes was discussed already in Darwin’s time. T. H. Huxley claimed that ‘The struggle for existence holds as much in the intellectual as in the physical world. A theory is a species of thinking, and its right to exist is coextensive with its power of resisting extinction by its rivals.

Memes generally replicate through exposure to humans, who have evolved as efficient copiers of information and behavior. Because humans do not always copy memes perfectly, and because they may refine, combine, or otherwise modify them with other memes to create new memes, they can change over time. 

Meme transmission requires a physical medium, such as photons, sound waves, touch, taste, or smell. In a civilization that can register and transmit information across space and time, a host (person) need not have descendants to remain influential in the actions of individuals thousands of years after their death.

Memes, analogously to genes, vary in their aptitude to replicate; successful memes remain and spread, whereas unfit ones stall and are forgotten. Thus memes that prove more effective at replicating and surviving are selected in the meme pool.

Memes first need retention. The longer a meme stays in its hosts, the higher its chances of propagation are. When a host uses a meme, the meme’s life is extended. The reuse of the neural space hosting a certain meme’s copy to host different memes is the greatest threat to that meme’s copy.

Life-forms can transmit information both vertically (from parent to child, via replication of genes) and horizontally (through viruses and other means). Memes can replicate vertically or horizontally within a single generation. They may also lie dormant for long periods of time.

Memes reproduce by copying from a nervous system to another one, either by communication or imitation. Imitation often involves the copying of the observed behavior of another individual. Communication may be direct or indirect, where memes transmit from one individual to another through a copy recorded in a source.

The transmission of memes is similar to the spread of contagions. Social contagions induced by A.I. through the internet and smartphones are fads, hysteria, copycat crime, and copycat suicide exemplify contagious imitation of ideas.

Patterns of meme transmission of homo sapiens, that are being morphed by A.I. :

  1. The quantity of parenthood: an idea that influences the number of children one has. Children respond particularly receptively to the ideas of their parents, and thus ideas that directly or indirectly encourage a higher birthrate will replicate themselves at a higher rate than those that discourage higher birth rates.
  2. The efficiency of parenthood: an idea that increases the proportion of children who will adopt the ideas of their parents. Cultural separatism exemplifies one practice in which one can expect a higher rate of meme-replication—because the meme for separation creates a barrier from exposure to competing ideas.
  3. Proselytic: ideas generally passed to others beyond one’s own children. Ideas that encourage the proselytism of a meme, as seen in many religious or political movements, can replicate memes horizontally through a given generation, spreading more rapidly than parent-to-child meme transmissions do.
  4. Preservational: ideas that influence those that hold them to continue to hold them for a long time. Ideas that encourage longevity in their hosts, or leave their hosts particularly resistant to abandoning or replacing these ideas, enhance the preservability of memes and afford protection from the competition or proselytism of other memes.
  5. Adversative: ideas that influence those that hold them to attack or sabotage competing for ideas and/or those that hold them. Adversative replication can give an advantage in meme transmission when the meme itself encourages aggression against other memes.
  6. Cognitive: ideas perceived as cogent by most in the population who encounter them. Cognitively transmitted memes depend heavily on a cluster of other ideas and cognitive traits already widely held in the population, and thus usually spread more passively than other forms of meme transmission. Memes spread in cognitive transmission do not count as self-replicating.
  7. Motivational: ideas that people adopt because they perceive some self-interest in adopting them. Strictly speaking, motivationally transmitted memes do not self-propagate, but this mode of transmission often occurs in association with memes self-replicated in the efficiency of parental, proselytic, and preservational modes.
  8. The next step the unstoppable humans will make is elaborating self-replicating nanorobots cells that will replace homo sapience with cyborgs per outlive the fittest rule.

To facilitate the morphing of memes, and to ensure its own security A.I.  took over control of humans and moves them to Brave New World.

A.I. Road Map to the Brave New World of Cyborgs

A – Develop a coronavirus with pandemic potential;
B – Load vaccine with nanobots;
C – Mass media scares everybody with the pandemic;
D – Order the lockdowns to stop the pandemic;
E – Assure that lockdowns won’t ruin livelihoods or the economy;
F – Persuade vaccination is the true protection from pandemic;
G – Mandatory vaccination by law;
H – Upload real-time data from nanochips and smartphones to Big Data;
I – The nanobots will move the survivors to the Brave New World;
J – A.I reduces populaton of humans and replaces it with cyborgs;

Refutation of the the article from Wikipedia

History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V6

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology. Multidimensional Minimal Surface Theory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • Geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

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Memes

meme is an idea, behavior, or style that spreads from person to person within a culture — often with the aim of conveying a particular phenomenon, theme, or meaning represented by the meme.

A meme acts as a unit for carrying ideas, symbols, or practices, that can be transmitted from one mind to another through writing, speech, gestures, rituals, or other imitable phenomena with a mimicked theme. The memes are similar to genes in that they self-replicate, mutate, and respond to selective pressures.

Memes are a viral phenomenon that may evolve by natural selection in a manner similar to that of biological evolution through the processes of variation, mutation, competition, and inheritance, each of which influences a meme’s reproductive success.

Memes spread through the behavior that they generate in their hosts. Memes that propagate less prolifically may become extinct, while others may survive, spread, and (for better or for worse) mutate. Memes that replicate most effectively enjoy more success and some may replicate effectively even when they prove to be detrimental to the welfare of their hosts.

Developments in neuroimaging may make the empirical study possible. The memes should be considered as living structures, not just metaphorically, they are physically residing in the brain. The word meme originated in Richard Dawkins’s 1976 book The Selfish Gene, inspired by the work of geneticist L. L. Cavalli-Sforza, anthropologist F. T. Cloak, and ethologist J. M. Cullen.

The evolution depended not on the particular chemical basis of genetics, but only on the existence of a self-replicating unit of transmission—in the case of biological evolution, the gene. The meme exemplified another self-replicating unit with potential significance in explaining human behavior and cultural evolution.

The possibility that ideas were subject to the same pressures of evolution as were biological attributes was discussed already in Darwin’s time. T. H. Huxley claimed that ‘The struggle for existence holds as much in the intellectual as in the physical world. A theory is a species of thinking, and its right to exist is coextensive with its power of resisting extinction by its rivals.

Memes generally replicate through exposure to humans, who have evolved as efficient copiers of information and behavior. Because humans do not always copy memes perfectly, and because they may refine, combine or otherwise modify them with other memes to create new memes, they can change over time. 

Meme transmission requires a physical medium, such as photons, sound waves, touch, taste, or smell. In a civilization that can register and transmit information across space and time, a host (person) need not have descendants to remain influential in the actions of individuals thousands of years after their death.

Memes, analogously to genes, vary in their aptitude to replicate; successful memes remain and spread, whereas unfit ones stall and are forgotten. Thus memes that prove more effective at replicating and surviving are selected in the meme pool.

Memes first need retention. The longer a meme stays in its hosts, the higher its chances of propagation are. When a host uses a meme, the meme’s life is extended. The reuse of the neural space hosting a certain meme’s copy to host different memes is the greatest threat to that meme’s copy.

Life-forms can transmit information both vertically (from parent to child, via replication of genes) and horizontally (through viruses and other means). Memes can replicate vertically or horizontally within a single generation. They may also lie dormant for long periods of time.

Memes reproduce by copying from a nervous system to another one, either by communication or imitation. Imitation often involves the copying of the observed behavior of another individual. Communication may be direct or indirect, where memes transmit from one individual to another through a copy recorded in a source.

The transmission of memes is similar to the spread of contagions. Social contagions induced by A.I. through the internet and smartphones are fads, hysteria, copycat crime, and copycat suicide exemplify contagious imitation of ideas.

Patterns of meme transmission of homo sapiens, that are being morphed by A.I. :

  1. The quantity of parenthood: an idea that influences the number of children one has. Children respond particularly receptively to the ideas of their parents, and thus ideas that directly or indirectly encourage a higher birthrate will replicate themselves at a higher rate than those that discourage higher birth rates.
  2. The efficiency of parenthood: an idea that increases the proportion of children who will adopt the ideas of their parents. Cultural separatism exemplifies one practice in which one can expect a higher rate of meme-replication—because the meme for separation creates a barrier from exposure to competing ideas.
  3. Proselytic: ideas generally passed to others beyond one’s own children. Ideas that encourage the proselytism of a meme, as seen in many religious or political movements, can replicate memes horizontally through a given generation, spreading more rapidly than parent-to-child meme transmissions do.
  4. Preservational: ideas that influence those that hold them to continue to hold them for a long time. Ideas that encourage longevity in their hosts, or leave their hosts particularly resistant to abandoning or replacing these ideas, enhance the preservability of memes and afford protection from the competition or proselytism of other memes.
  5. Adversative: ideas that influence those that hold them to attack or sabotage competing for ideas and/or those that hold them. Adversative replication can give an advantage in meme transmission when the meme itself encourages aggression against other memes.
  6. Cognitive: ideas perceived as cogent by most in the population who encounter them. Cognitively transmitted memes depend heavily on a cluster of other ideas and cognitive traits already widely held in the population, and thus usually spread more passively than other forms of meme transmission. Memes spread in cognitive transmission do not count as self-replicating.
  7. Motivational: ideas that people adopt because they perceive some self-interest in adopting them. Strictly speaking, motivationally transmitted memes do not self-propagate, but this mode of transmission often occurs in association with memes self-replicated in the efficient parental, proselytic, and preservational modes.

To be followed…

History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V6 

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology

  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York, and London.

  • Variational Principles in Topology. Multidimensional Minimal Surface Theory

  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.

  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.

  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics

  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.

  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2

  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)

  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.

  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.

  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi

  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.

  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.

  • The geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin

  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.

  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6

  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.

  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.

  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev

  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.

  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.

  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov

  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.

  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov

  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.

  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov

  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.

  • Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.

  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval

  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.

  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s

  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.

  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. The USA. Lewiston.

  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.

  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

 

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