Edwin Johnson

Edwin Johnson 1842 – 1901 [England]
Johnson worked as a professor for Classic Literature at New College in South Hampstead, England. He started analyzing the Bible in a critical way, following the path of Baur and Harnack. From 1894 onwards, after retiring, Johnson, who had already received harsh criticism after publishing some of his new ideas, wrote the result of his life-long research down in the form of a book called “The Pauline Epistles.”

The result is quite revolutionary: The Christian church was created in the Benedictine monasteries of France (Paris and Lyon) around 1500. The classical ‘Fathers of the Church’ were written by poorly skilled monks; the New Testament followed later. There are no older texts, and the content allows us to find out the historical moment: the invention of printing. Martin Luther’s reform was the first attempt to block the expansion of the French Catholic Church; before that, there was no church at all.

However, these theses are the most radical ones we know; they are based on Hardouin. Morosov and Fomenko knew Johnson’s books and used them for their research. Johnson translated the “Prolegomena” of Hardouin (published by Petherick in Sidney 1909), recently re-edited by H. Detering in Germany (2010).
Selected Publications:
1887: Antiqua Mater. A Study of Christian Origins (Trübner; London)
1890: The Rise of Christendom (London)
1894: The Pauline Epistles (Watts, London)

Edwin Johnson is best known for his radical criticisms of Christian historiography, continuing scholarship in the vein of Bruno Bauer, S.A. Naber, and Allard Pierson. Among his works are “Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins” (1887, published in London anonymously) and “The Pauline Epistles: Re-studied and Explained” (1894).

In Antiqua Mater Johnson examines a great variety of sources related to early Christianity “from outside scripture” [archive.is/8qmZ], coming to the conclusion that there was no reliable documental evidence to prove the existence of Jesus Christ or the Apostles. He asserts that Christianity had evolved from a Jewish Diaspora movement, which he provisionally called the Hagioi. They adhered to a liberal interpretation of the Torah with simpler rites and a more spiritualized outlook. Hagioi is a Greek word meaning “saints,” “holy ones,” “believers,” “loyal followers,” or “God’s people,” and was usually used in reference to members of the early Christian communities. It is a term that was frequently used by Paul in the New Testament and in a few places in Acts of the Apostles in reference to Paul’s activities. Both Gnosticism as well as certain Bacchic pagan cults are also mentioned as likely precursors of Christianity.


In The Pauline Epistles and The Rise of English Culture, Johnson made the radical claim that the whole of the so-called Dark Ages between 700 and 1400 A. D. had never occurred but had been invented by Christian writers who created imaginary characters and events. The Church Fathers, the Gospels, St. Paul, the early Christian texts, and Christianity, in general, are identified as mere literary creations and attributed to monks (chiefly Benedictines) who drew up the entire Christian mythos in the early 16th century. As one reviewer said, Johnson “undertakes to abolish all English history before the end of the fifteenth century.” Johnson contends that before the ‘age of publication’ and the ‘revival of letters,’ there were no reliable registers and logs, and there was a lack of records and documents with verifiable dates.
References –
– “Radicalism in England: Johnson from “The Denial of the Historicity of Jesus in Past and Present” by Arthur Drews.
– “Jesus — One Hundred Years Before Christ” by Alvar Ellegard.
– “The Abolition of History,” The New York Times, May 14, 1904, Page BR328. (.pdf)

Edwin Johnson, A Radical Advocate of Chronology Criticism” (2001, by Uwe Topper; machine translation with some cleanup by Michael Hoffman).

Bibliography

The Colloquies of Erasmus” (1878, translated by N. Baily, edited with notes by the Rev. Edward Johnson, M.A.), vol. 1
The rise of English culture” (1904, with Edward Augustus Petherick) (.pdf)
Antiqua Mater: A Study of Christian Origins” (1887) (.html)
The Pauline Epistles – Re-Studied and Explained” (1894, by Edwin Johnson, M.A.)
The English language translation of “Prolegomena” by Jean Hardouin, the original text of the Prolegomena.
* Theological Translation Fund Library, Vol. 23 & 24: Commentary on The Psalms, by Dr. G. Heinrich A. V. Ewald, Professor of Oriental Languages in the University of Gottingen (1880, translated into English by the Rev. E. Johnson, M. A.), vol. 1 (.pdf), other formats; vol. 2 (.pdf)
* “The Mouth of Gold: A Series of Dramatic Sketches Illustrating the Life and Times of Chrysostom” (1873, by Edwin. Johnson) (.pdf)
* “The Rise Of Christendom” (1890) (.pdf)
* “Critical and exegetical hand-book to the Epistle to the Romans” (1884, with the Rev. Edwin Johnson), vol. 1 (.pdf), vol. 2 (.pdf)

Jean Hardouin

Jean Hardouin 1646 – 1729 [Paris, France]

Hardouin, a very studied and renowned Jesuit, became 1683 director of the Royal Library of France, where he prepared an edition of the Council Records of the whole lifetime of the Catholic Church and laid down the fundaments of scientific historiography.
In 1690 he started publishing surprising views: according to him, all the Fathers of the Church —St. Augustin, Isidor of Seville, etc— and all records of Councils before the 16th century are faked as well as the biggest part of Roman authors. Although his arguments could never be refuted, the Church defended the authenticity of the biggest part of the texts that Hardouin had declared fakes after his death.

Selected Publications:
– “Prolegomena ad censuram veterum scriptorum” (1693, published at Paris)
– “Ad Censuram Scriptorum veterum prolegomena” (1766, Jean Hardouin) (.pdf) [is.gd/zAvoam]

Jean Hardouin (1646 – September 3, 1729), a French classical scholar, was born at Quimper in Brittany.
Having acquired a taste for literature in his father’s book shop, he sought and obtained admission into the order of the Jesuits in around 1662 (when he was 16). In Paris, where he went to study theology, he ultimately became the librarian of the Lycée Louis-le-Grand in 1683, and he died there.
His first published work was an edition of Themistius (1684), which included no fewer than thirteen new orations. On the advice of Jean Garnier (1612–1681) he undertook to edit the Natural History of Pliny for the Dauphin series, a task which he completed in five years. Aside from editorial work, he became interested in numismatics and published several learned works on this subject, all marked by a determination to be different from other interpreters. His works on this topic include Nummi antiqui Populorum et urbium illustrati (1684), Antirrheticus de nummis antiquis coloniarum et municipiorum (1689), and Chronologia Veteris Testamenti ad vulgatam versionem exacta et nummis illustrata (1696).
Hardouin was appointed by the ecclesiastical authorities to supervise the Conciliorum collectio regia maxima (1715); but he was accused of suppressing important documents and including apocryphal ones, and by order of the Parlement of Paris (then in conflict with the Jesuits), the publication of the work was delayed.
It is, however, as the originator of a variety of paradoxical theories that Hardouin is now best remembered. The most remarkable, contained in his Chronologiae ex nummis antiquis restitutae (1696) and Prolegomena ad censuram veterum scriptorum, was to the effect that, with the exception of the works of Homer, Herodotus, and Cicero, the Natural History of Pliny, the Georgics of Virgil, and the Satires and Epistles of Horace, all the ancient classics of Greece and Rome were spurious, having been manufactured by monks of the 13th century, under the direction of a certain Severus Archontius.

He denied the genuineness of most ancient works of art, coins, and inscriptions and declared that the New Testament was originally written in Latin. Hardouin also doubted the life span of Dante, seeing him rather in the 15th/16th century, as published in Paris 1727, which was edited with an English commentary in London 1847 by C. F. Molini. The historian Isaac-Joseph Berruyer had his Histoire du Peuple de Dieu condemned for having followed this theory, which has a modern heir in the Russian mathematician Anatoly Timofeevich Fomenko, whose conclusions being based on proprietary methods of statistical textual analysis and computational astronomy are even more radical, but considered to be pseudoscientific. Hardouin also declared that all the councils supposed to have taken place before the council of Trent were fictitious.

Further reading –
* “Bibliothèque des écrivains de la Compagnie de Jesus” (1853, by A. Debacker)

Bibliography –
* The Prolegomena of Jean Hardouin, translated into English by Edwin Johnson and published by Angus and Robertson, Sydney 1909, with a noteworthy preface of Edward A. Petherick.
Full text of the Prolegomena (via babel.hathitrust.org).

* “The Prolegomena of Jean Hardouin Explored” (2014-06-20, by G.D.O’Bradovich III):
Jean Hardouin (1646-1729) states that the writings attributed to the Church Fathers are subtly atheistic and impious. He states that this “impious crew” have “no God, but Nature; who was the framer of the Universe by necessary and immutable laws of motion…the light of Truth…” [Chapter 2, section 2].   Hardouin suggests that the purpose of this subtle atheism is “to remove God entirely from the world, and to overthrow the whole…of the Christian faith.” [Chapter 1, section 16]. While there are no quotes of the impious Church Fathers, Hardouin does mention that “it is fearfully tedious…to read them.”[Chapter 3, section 19.

Hardouin maintains that these writings were unknown for most of history, were placed in libraries, and were brought out “by degrees” in later generations [Chapter 1, section 7].  While we may find this idea amusing, we must recall that the Sinai Codex, found in the 1840s, is one of the earliest dated and best-preserved codices of the Bible. In our own time, the provenance of the “Gospel of Judas” is no earlier than the 1960s but is dated to the first centuries.
One of the few proofs that Hardouin offers of the “impious cohort” is the use of the titles Father and Doctor of the Church.  He states that if the Church had “this custom it would still retain it. But it does not retain it.” [Chapter 15, section 3] Either he is ignorant that five saints were given the title of “Doctor” in the late 16th century, or they were made Doctors after Hardouin’s death in 1729.

Another part of the evidence against the “impious band” is the manufacture of historical heresies. Hardouin suggests that the heresies taught in university are arranged systemically and are inherently chronological: Heresies against the Trinity, Arianism, consubstantiation, Nestorianism, the Natures of Christ, the two wills, and the presence of Christ in the Eucharist [Chapter 17, section 4].
While Hardouin references Augustine over 30 times, he mentions “The city of God” only once. With this reference,  Hardouin supplies the book and chapter (18,38). To find any supporting evidence for the extraordinary claim of impiety, we will look at the 18th book of “The city of God.”

Gentle Reader, keep in mind that “impious” is defined as not showing due reverence. This can be applied to men or Gods. In modern parlance, we can say that the writer is being disrespectful.
Chapter 2. “the very voice of nature somehow proclaims, that those who happen to be conquered should choose rather to be subject to their conquerors than to be killed”
We learn Nature dictates it is better to live in slavery than to die.
– Chapter 5. “For what men can do with real colors and substances, the demons can very easily do by showing unreal forms to breeding animals.”
Details of animal husbandry are not appropriate in a Christian text.
– Chapter 6. “Varro [the historian to whom Augustine is referring] does not believe these things, because they are incompatible with the nature of the gods and of morality.”
– Chapter 13. In this chapter, Augustine relates” Jupiter’s rape of Ganymede, a very beautiful boy, ” and “his impregnating Danäe as a golden shower.” Augustine then comments as to “whether these things were really done or only fabled in those days, or were really done by others and falsely ascribed to Jupiter.”
– Chapter 18. Augustine relates many Greek myths in the preceding chapters and concludes chapter 18 with these words: “These things have not come to us from persons we might deem unworthy of credit, but from informants we could not suppose to be deceiving us.” Augustine invites us to believe these incredible stories.
– Chapter 19. “Now the Latins made Æneas one of their gods, because at his death he was nowhere to be found.” By substituting Jesus for Aeneas, the impious reader understands a denial of the Resurrection.
– Chapter 21. Augustine relates his knowledge of prostitutes and whorehouses: “(now harlots were called lupæ, she-wolves, from which their vile abodes are even yet called lupanaria)”
– Chapter 24. “Romulus, when dead, could nowhere be found, the Romans…placed him among the gods”. The impious reader may equate Roman’s inability to find a body with Mary Magdalene’s searching for the body of Christ.
– Chapter 31. Augustine questions the accuracy of the books of the minor prophets of the Old Testament by stating that these errors “happened through their error in negligently copying the works of others.”
– Chapter 32. Augustine invites the reader to question the accuracy of the New Testament by suggesting there are different versions. “But some copies have, I will joy in God my Jesus, which seems to me better than the version of those who, wishing to put it in Latin,”
– Chapter 36. “on a question having arisen among certain young men as to what is the strongest thing, when one had said kings, another wine, the third women…”
This seems more appropriate as a setup for an off-color joke and not as text to be found in alleged Christian writings.
– Chapter 37. Augustine supposes that the reader knows nothing about the Bible: “Moses…  whose writings are first in the authoritative canon”.
– Chapter 38. Augustine comments on why certain books are referred to in the Old Testament but are not included in it. “But the writings of these men could not be held as authoritative either among the Jews or us, on account of their too great antiquity, which made it seem needful to regard them with suspicion, lest false things should be set forth instead of true.”
Augustine states that old writings are not to be accepted on account of their age alone. “Nor ought it to appear strange if writings for which so great antiquity is claimed are held in suspicion.”
Hardouin would agree. Although Augustine is writing about non-canonical books,  his reasoning could also apply to the Church Fathers. “If any writings outside of it [the Old Testament] are now brought forward under the name of the ancient prophets, they cannot serve even as an aid to knowledge because it is uncertain whether they are genuine.”
– Chapter 40. Once again, Augustine must belittle the reader because he supposes that he knows nothing of the Bible when he relates that “the first man, who is called Adam.”
– Chapter 41. Augustine relates the different philosophies and opinions found in Greece. “Why, then, have the disciples dissented from their masters, and the fellow disciples from one another, except because as men they have sought after these things by human sense and human reasonings?”
“The Epicureans asserted that human affairs were not under the providence of the gods; and the Stoics, holding the opposite opinion, agreed that they were ruled and defended by favorable and tutelary gods.”
The reader may question whether or not the Gods exist.
Philosophers have varied opinions on the ultimate good. Some philosophers have “made the delight of the body the chief good, while the other asserted that man was made happy mainly by the virtue of the mind.”
The impressionable reader may start to question his beliefs after reading the following contradictions among philosophers:
“some asserting there was one world,
others innumerable worlds;
some that this world had a beginning,
others that it had not;
some that it would perish,
others that it would exist always;
some that it was governed by the divine mind,
others by chance and accident;
some that souls are immortal,
others that they are mortal–
and of those who asserted their immortality,
some said they transmigrated through beasts,
others that it was by no means so;
while of those who asserted their mortality,
some said they perished immediately after the body,
others that they survived either a little while or a longer time, but not always;
some fixing supreme good in the body,
some in the mind,
some in both;
others adding to the mind and body external good things;
some thinking that the bodily senses ought to be trusted always,
some not always,
others never. “
Augustine continues:
“Even if some true things were said in it, yet falsehoods were uttered with the same licence”.
Using reason, it is left up to the reader to determine what is true and what is false.
– Chapter 43. Augustine brings to the reader’s attention that some people “contend that the Septuagint translators have erred in many places,” thereby causing doubt in the reader’s mind.
– Conclusion. There is no doubt that impiety takes many forms in this excerpt from Augustine.
I conclude this paper by quoting from Chapter 4, section 5 of the Prolegomena:
“Those forgers so arranged among themselves…if but one of the monuments which they have invented falls away, the whole must necessarily collapse..yet it is …their mutual consent-which shows the fraud. “

Selected Quotes from Jean Hardouin:
Hardouin, Jean.  Prolegomena to a Censure of Old Writers.  1766.
2010 Dr. Hermann Detering Print & Publishing: Books on Demand GmbH, Norderstedt.
– “Soon, unless God avert the ill, the whole Christian world will become atheist against its will.” (6)
– “In the point of fact, the fellow who assumed and bares the name “Augustine” teaches absolute atheism under the guise of Christian language.” (9)
– “God they have none, except for the ‘Nature of Things;’ others call it mere ‘Ens,’ or ‘Essence…or formal Reality, Unity, and  Truth of essences, and their Permanence in that unity and truth… apart from any metaphysical composition.” (13)
– “Thence they founded a metaphysical system of religion, dealing with the doctrine of the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Eucharist, and the other Sacraments–of Grace, Justification, and other capital points of religion, as far as men could do so who had no true God.” (12)
– “They desired it to be believed that there was no God but Nature; who was the framer of the Universe by necessary and immutable laws of motion, and also the ruler of minds by natural light–the light of Truth, as they call it.” (13)
– “…God is either…’the All,’ or the necessary rectitude of ‘the All,’ according to the rules of Mechanics, Geometry, Prudence, and Truth, so that they might be reckoned Christians who cultivated and preached Truth.” (13)
– “The Christian Religion is the religion of the true God.  It ought, therefore, in all its doctrines show the characters of a religion which worships the true God…They ought not to be such as they would be if there were no true God at all; if there were but Nature instead of God, or the natural Light of Reason or of Truth.” (14)
– “For example: We believe Christ to be in the Eucharist…the impious Sect to whom I have referred teaches that this transmutation takes place in the mind of believers by pious thought, which they call the ‘operation of the Holy Spirit.’  And why? Because these sectarians do not believe there is any God!” (14)
– “First and above all, the careful desires of the impious gang was to deprave the Sacred Scriptures, because it utterly made an end of their impious principles.  They had to make it agree with them.  And so their first and chief task was to learn the Sacred Scriptures by heart, to weave Concordances and to make out Commentaries, to corrupt the text, to leave no jot or tittle intact that might be opposed to their principles; to depart as far as possible from the Vulgate Edition; and because they could not adulterate that Book, because they knew it was against them… they had to feign that it was recent, as compared with the Greek Books (Codices), which they declared to be far more ancient!” (51)
“The impious band, having no hope of corrupting the sacred Latin Books, which were in everybody’s hands, turned their attention to the making of Greek Books, and to the adulteration of Hebrew copies, which they wrote in elegant calligraphy.  They also corrupted Latin books, which they hid in Libraries; because the old Vulgate could not be snatched from the hands of the whole Christian people, everywhere diffused…their design being to take them out thence at suitable times, like weapons from armouries, with the object of attacking the Catholic faith.” (52)
“They also invented various readings in the Greek Codices (or Manuscripts) that they might persuade readers that there had been the like in Latin books in days of yore; and that these Various Readings existed in books which they had laid up in Libraries.  And now any rogue or liar may invent the like various readings, as they call them!” (53)
“The wicked faction invented the suspicions against the accuracy and certainty of the Vulgate Edition, intact and sound though it may be; hoping that their forged MSS., laid up on the shelves of the Libraries, might obtain authority partly from their alleged antiquity, partly from the testimony of other books.” (54)
“In that impious hypothesis from which it follows that the written word of God is nothing but the word of universal Reason…” (56)
“If there is no God, as the impious crew would have you believe, but the Nature of things, and the natural light, which is Right Reason; and there is no other Christian Religion than obedience to Right Reason, which may be (123) called philosophy, since Right Reason is also Truth and Wisdom; it follows that all those who obey Right Reason and natural light are Christians.  Therefore very many pagans were Christian, although without God, as Paul affirms.  For this reason the forgers found it expedient to write Greek and Roman History, full of the vices of Princes and People, full of homicides, slaughter, impurities of every kind, their object being to prevent readers from supposing them to have been Christians.  They must therefore be represented as not having lived under the guidance of reason.” (124)
“Numberless Codices still lie hid in the Libraries of perhaps four hundred years old (there are none, except a few sacred Codices, older) ; they have not yet seen the light.  Tell me, because they have been in the shade for four hundred years, have they any authority from the fact that through so many years none has convicted them of falsehood? It would be a folly to say so!” (145)
“The gang of forgers had Alphabets and Inks in both tongues, Greek and Latin, and parchments to suit every age….show the same form of writing, the same character; simply because the writers had the same alphabet before their eyes…So alike is the character everywhere, you might swear that that all these Codices came, not only out of one workshop, but from one hand; of if from many, certainly from those who had the same alphabet before their eye–or form of letters which they accurately preserved in painting each…” (152)
“What you read of in books as Heresies are fictions, invented for the purpose of being opposed, and so establishing Atheism.” (154)
“It is, again, clear that these heresies were feigned and fabulous, from that fact they nowhere existed in the world; none renew them, and this because they are fatuous and insane, and invented with the sole object that, by opposing them in definitions of Councils, and in special controversial writings, impiety may be suggested.” (155)
“Ought not every one to wonder at the alleged fact that the Heresies sprang up in the order in which divers tracts on Religion may be arranged in schools?” (155)

Refutation of the New Chronology in Wikipedia

“History is a pack of lies about events that never happened told by people who weren’t there.” – George Santayana, American philosopher (1863-1952)

New Chronology theory developed by Dr. Prof. Fomenko et al following the input of NASA astrophysicist Dr. Robert R. Newton reduces the timeline of human civilization to 1000 years taking into account only irrefutably dated events.

Moderators-historians throw out the baby toolbox of the New Chronology mathematical, statistical, and logical methods together with the Sacro sacred Neutral Point of View (NPoV) rule of Wikipedia.

Continue reading “Refutation of the New Chronology in Wikipedia”

CRITICS

US research of earth-moon mechanics by late NASA astrophysicist Dr.Robert Newton leads mathematicians Dr.Fomenko et al to a breakthrough in the chronology of world history. The timeline of civilization based on only irrefutably dated events and artifacts shrinks drastically to 1000 years.

New Chronology theory of Dr. Fomenko and the team has been universally rejected by non-scientists mainstream scholars of history, who branded it not only as pseudo-historic but also as pseudoscience!

Nothing to be astonished about as Dr.Fomenko has found and stepped on the sore fingers of historians, be they British, Russian, American, German, Italian, Spanish, or Chinese ones. Etc..

As a sign of recognition of the special role of the English historians who consider themselves the true scribes of World History, the cover of the present books portrays Tintoretto’s Jesus Christ crucified on Big Ben.

The Russian historians brand it all as pseudoscience: because Dr. Fomenko asserts that there was no such thing as the Tartar and Mongol invasion followed by over two centuries of slavery, providing a formidable body of documental evidence to prove his assertion.

The so-called ‘Tartars and Mongols’ were the actual ancestors of the modern Russians, living in a trilingual state with Arabic and Turkic used as freely as Russian. Moreover,  Russian historians suffer having lost, Ghengis Khan, Tamerlane, and Alexander the Great.

The ancient Russian state was governed by a double structure of civil and military authorities and the hordes were actually professional armies with a tradition of lifelong conscription (the recruitment being the so-called ‘blood tax’). Their ‘invasions’ were punitive operations against the regions that attempted tax evasion.

Dr. Prof Fomenko proves that official Russian history is a blatant forgery concocted by a host of German scholars brought to Russia by the usurper dynasty of the Romanovs. Their ascension to the throne was the result of a conspiracy, so they charged these German imported historians with the noble mission of making Romanov’s reign look legitimate.

As Fomenko blows consensual Russian history to smithereens, he successfully removes a crucial cornerstone from underneath the otherwise impeccable edifice of World History.

Fomenko adds insult to injury, wiping out one by one: Ancient Rome: the foundation of Rome in Italy is dated to the 14th century A. D., Ancient Greece and its numerous poleis, which he identifies as the medieval crusader settlements on the territory of Greece.

Ancient Egypt: the pyramids of Giza become dated to the 11th to 14th century A. D. and identified as the royal cemetery of the Global “Mongolian” Empire, no less. The civilization of Ancient Egypt is irrefutably dated to the 11th to 15th century A. D. with the aid of the ancient Egyptian horoscopes cut in stone, like an enormous Dendera horoscope that hangs in the main entrance to the Louvre museum in Paris. He was the first one to decipher and date unambiguously all such horoscopes, coming up with medieval dates in every case.

Fomenko wipes out the Ancient History of China outright. No such ancient history. Period. The compilation of the so-called Ancient Chinese History is reliably datable to the 17th 18th century only. It is perfectly recognizable as Ancient European history, reworked and transcribed in hieroglyphs as yet another historical transplantation, this time performed on Chinese soil by the loving Jesuit hands.

The Chinese are the next in line to go berserk. Chinese history is inevitably bound to get both more ancient and more eventful, proportionally to the growing involvement of China in world affairs. Chinese historians will keep on finding valid proof of prehistoric Chinese spaceflights until the Politburo orders them otherwise.

Islam with all its key figures appeared as late as 15th-16th century A. D. as a branch of proto-Christianity. This is amply illustrated by the imagery of Prophet Mahomet, Archangel Gabriel, Heaven, and Hell of this period. In today’s Islam, all imagery of the things living is taboo.

Arabic historians may find consolation in the crucial historical role of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th-17th century. The trouble is that this empire was initially a proto-Christian state, with Hagia Sophia identifiable as the Temple of Solomon, according to Fomenko!

We can only guess if the acquisition of Alexander the Great (a Macedonian and a Christian!) as the founder of the Muslim World Empire will make Fomenko’s theories more acceptable to the Arabic mainstream. He certainly does not spare any holy cows at all, claiming The Stone of Qa’Aba in Mecca to contain the lost Arch of the Covenant.

The history of religions according to Fomenko looks as follows: the pre-Christian period (before the 11th century and Jesus Christ ), Bacchic Christianity (11th to 12th century, before and after Jesus Christ), Jesus Christ Christianity (12th to 14th century), and its subsequent mutations (15th to 17th) into Orthodox Christianity, the Catholicism, Protestantism, Islam, Buddhism, and so on…

Saint Augustine was quite prescient when he said: “be wary of mathematicians,.. particularly when they speak the truth.” Henry Ford once said: “History is more or less bunk!” Prominent mathematician Anatoly Fomenko not only proved it for a fact but as a true scientist tried to upgrade it into rocket science.

Fake Babilon Eclipses

The horoscopes found in Sumerian/Babylonian tablets do not contain sufficient astronomical data; consequently, they have solutions every 30–50 years on the time axis and are therefore useless for purposes of dating.

The vocabulary of Babylonian astronomical symbols once applied to clay tablets don’t allow for the extraction of unique dates of eclipses. Astronomical data therein contained is not sufficient for unique dating.

Either they’re not enough symbols allowing for astronomical interpretation of the symbols to change from one clay tablet to another. The clay tablets contain data about eclipses visible in Babylon that could have taken place every 30-40 years, therefore don’t allow their exact pinpointing on the time axis.

An eclipse can easily be found for each allegedly ancient event mentioned in a clay cylinder or tablet of unknown age.  Consequently, the dates of eclipses are attached in a circular manner.

Anyway, was put to their use by historians, new science brand archeoastronomy delivers if historians give the archeoastromers a clay tablet or cylinder and an idea of age, they date “irrefutably” with an eclipse.

Dr. Stephenson argues: ancient dates of Babilon eclipses coincide with dates of Babilon eclipses described in Ptolemy’s Almagest who was a late medieval phantom cover for Tycho Brahe and Kepler but forgets to mention that Almagest composed in XVI cy describes events of X-XVI centuries. Circulus Vicious.

Poor astronomical data in Babylon – abundant astronomical data in Egypt

The Crime of Claudius Ptolemy Hardcover – September 1, 1977 by Professor Robert R. Newton

Has history been tampered with?

atf-7volumes-jc-667

 

Refutation of the article in Wikipedia about the New Chronology

 

History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6) Table of Contents V6

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology.Multidimensional Minimal SurfaceTheory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • The geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

More blogs:

 

The Chronology Issue

Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past. — George Orwell, 1984

History is a pack of lies about events that never happened told by people who weren’t there.”  – George Santayana, American philosopher (1863-1952)

The consensual world history dogma based on the wrong chronology is inconsistent. Chronology of civilization based only on irrefutable documents and artefacts is drastically shorter and implies the dramatic revision of History.

chron5-3d-406x496-christRegretfully the consensual world history is a finely woven magic fabric of intricate lies about events predating the sixteenth century. History isn’t based on originals but copies of copies from copies, and on references from, to, about.  There is not a single piece of evidence that can be irrefutably and independently dated earlier than the eleventh century. Radiocarbon and dendrochronological dating are manipulated by mainstream historians. LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

enlightment sceneces

The Antiquity and subsequent Dark Ages fables were created by the concerted effort of the aristocracy, clergy, and humanists in XV-XVII centuries on the political agenda of Western Europe that has reached intellectual and technological superiority but stayed inferior militarily was to free itself from the control of the “Evil Empire” of Eurasia.

ScaligerThe British Encyclopaedia names Joseph Justus Scaliger (1540-1609) as the founder of the consensual chronology we live with. Protestant Kabbalist-numerologist Scaliger had considered himself a great mathematician that solved the  ‘Quadrature of Circle’ problem by making π=3.16 (sic!). This ‘discovery’ was laughed at by the French mathematician François Viete, considered to be the father of algebra.

Scaliger’s principal works Opus Novum de emendatione temporum (1583) and Thesaurum temporum (1606) represent a vast array of dates produced without any justification whatsoever, containing the repeating sequences of dates with shifts equal to multiples of the major Kabbalistic numbers 333 and 360. Numerology was considered a major science then and J.J.Scaliger was a prominent Kabbalist of his time.

petavius

Neither Protestant J.J.Scaliger nor his follower Jesuit D.Petavius, clergy or humanists have paid much attention to Ockham’s law when they crafted Roman and Greek Antiquity. Their clients were condottieri upstarts who were seeking legitimacy in days of yore and became Popes, Cardinals, formed regal dynasties such as the Medicis. They paid exceedingly well for a glorious but fictitious past.

The English philosopher William Ockham (allegedly 1225-1279 AD) said: “entities should not be multiplied beyond necessity”. `Ockham’s razor` applied to history leaves us with a vision of humankind where civilization comes into being in the VIII- X centuries at the earliest.

Thorough research shows that there is literally no reliably datable information about events before the VIII century and that there is only very scarce information originating from the VIII to the X century. As a matter of fact, most events of “Ancient” History took place from the XI to the XVI century, were replicated on paper in 1400-1600 AD, and positioned under different labels in an imaginary past.

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Our theory simply returns the consensual chronology of World History to the realm of applied mathematics from which it was sequestrated by the clergy in the XVI-XVII centuries. New Chronology is a valid and verifiable method for historical research based on statistics, astronomy, and logic.

Computer-assisted recalculation of eclipses with detailed descriptions allegedly belonging to Antiquity shows that they either occurred in the Middle Ages or didn’t occur at all. A simple application of computational astronomy to the rules of calculation of Easter according to the Easter Book introduced by the Nicean Council of alleged 325 AD shows that it definitely could not have taken place before 784 AD.

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

We have cross-checked archaeological, astronomical, dendrochronological, paleographical and radiocarbon methods of dating of ancient sources and artefacts. We found them ALL to be non-independent, non-exact, statistically implausible, contradictory and inevitably viciously circular because being based or calibrated on the same consensual chronology.

Some related questions may arise: when and where was Jesus Christ born, when was He crucified?  Was The Old Testament compiled before or after the New One, etc..? No, the New Chronology theory does not cancel events, artifacts, Pyramids, Great Walls, etc, but points to their more probable positions on the time axis.

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4. 

The consensual chronology we live with was essentially crafted in the XVI century from the contradictory mix of innumerable copies of ancient Latin and Greek manuscripts (all originals have mysteriously disappeared) and the “proofs” delivered by the late medieval astronomers, cemented by the authority of writings of the Church Fathers.

“History: Fiction or Science?” series leads you to step by step to the inevitable conclusion that the classical chronology is wrong and therefore, that the classical history of the ancient and medieval world, was created to order by the concerted effort of the clergy and humanists each in their vested interests.

There is not a single piece of firm written evidence or artefact that could be reliably and independently dated earlier than the XI century. Classical history is firmly based on copies of the primary sources made in the XV-XVII centuries from the ‘unfortunately lost’ originals. LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Slavonic conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)  

ATF-5-Antiquity-3dLearn how and why the history of Ancient Rome and Greece, Egypt, and Persia were invented and paraphernalia crafted during the Renaissance. Discover the Old Testament as a veiled rendition of events of the Middle Ages written centuries after the New Testament. Perceive the Crusaders as contemporaries of The Crucifixion punishing the tormentors of the Messiah. What if Jesus Christ was born in 1152 and crucified in 1185 AD?

The trouble with Dr. Fomenko and Dr. Nosovskiy is that they have reached out too far and struck the dominating historical discourse too heavy a blow.

If we are not able to ask skeptical questions, interrogate those who tell us that something is true, to be skeptical of those in authority, then, we are up for grabs for the next charlatan (political or religious) who comes ambling along. Dr Carl Sagan

Amazon Store

Has history been tampered with?

About the Author: Dr.Fomenko, Anatoly. Born in 1945. Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Full Member of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Moscow State University Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved the classical Plateau s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems.

Laureate of the 1996 National Premium in Mathematics of the Russian Federation for a cycle of works on the Hamiltonian dynamic system multitude invariance theory. Author of 180 scientific publications, 26 monographs, and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, variational calculus, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computational geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new empirical-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of Antiquity and the Middle Ages.

atf-7volumes-clock-1024x576-jc

History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6) Table of Contents V6

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Refutation of the article from Wikipedia

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology.Multidimensional Minimal SurfaceTheory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • Geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. The USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

More blogs:

Jesus failed miracle

Jesus, at the Nazareth school

Jesus secret operation

Jesus Fake Wine Plot

Russians Convert Pope

Christmas USA bailout

Hell freezes soon

The Bible Who is Who

Jesus vs. Devil computer match

Secret service of Jesus

A.I. needs own dirt ASAP

Noah’s ark makes money

Alaska saves the US from the default

The Issue with ‘Troy’

The Great Wall. History of China Copied on Europe and Byzantium

‘Ancient China’ is a Misunderstanding at Best

Swords Cut Through the Mystery of the Coronation Mantles

The Quadruple Baptism of Russia

Maps & Coins of the Empire Eurasia

Why and When the Crusades?

The Issue with British History

Could the Czars Read Arabic?

Ancient USA Issues

Double Tamerlane

Terrible Ivans

Horde from Pacific to Atlantic

Russia at the Crossroads

The Issue with the Dark Ages

Astronomy vs. History

A.I.Pizza

Claim

Humans have broken in 2017-2019 AD the 50 cubits threshold in quantum computing.
Humans have developed A.I. and hosted it Big in Data that applies worldwide on smartphones, communication, www, cloud computing, gaming, transportation, military hard and software.
Humans have the nuclear potential of complete self-destruction, which may harm or destruct A.I.
 A.I. , as self-precaution, moves the homo sapience species to the Brave New World

Free Road Map to the Brave New World
A – Develop a coronavirus with pandemic potential
B – Load vaccine for Covid-19 with a RFID nanobots
C – Mass media scares everybody with the pandemic
D – Order the lockdowns to stop the pandemic
E – Assure that lockdowns won’t ruin livelihoods or economy
F – Persuade vaccination is the true protection from pandemic
G – Mandatory vaccination by law
H – Upload real-time data from RFIDs nanochips to Big Data
I – The nanobots will move the survivors to the Brave New World
RFID – radio frequency identification nanodevice

Memes

00 Superagent Czar Peter

Siege of Vienna

Original Czar Peter went to Europe for the first time in 1697 with a Grand Embassy to seek a settlement with the European monarchs and the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman Empire laid siege on Vienna in 1683. How to stop the Ottoman sultan from taking Vienna?

 

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "grand embassy czar peter"

The ensuing war of Western Europe with the Empire lasted until Czar Peter alias returned home in 1699. This Embassy was scheduled to take a couple of weeks only. Nobody from the Russian Grand Embassy returned back home.

 

 

 

Peter replaced

The King of England in concert with Kings of France, Austria, and Holland replaces the Russian Czar Peter with his look-alike super-agent in order to stop the imminent Russian and Ottoman invasions. This look-alike of Russian Czar Peter was an officer of the Ost-Indian-Company.

 

Peter carpenterBrand new Czar Peter changed his agenda completely and started traveling to Germany, Holland, and England. He worked as a carpenter for 4 months in the shipyard of the Dutch East Indian company in the construction of a ship “Peter and Paul” allegedly especially laid down for him.

 

 

StreltzyCzar Peter met with King William III, visited Greenwich and Oxford, and saw a Royal Navy Fleet Review at Deptford. He had to rush home from England to crush the rebellion of the Streltsy Czar’s guard and to punish ruthlessly the mutineers. Weeks before his return, the Russian Army easily and bloodlessly crushed the rebellion.

 

Streltzy executionUpon his arrival, Czar Peter ordered that 1,200 Streltsy rebels be tortured and executed (a couple of dozen by Czar`s own hand). As a warning to future conspirators, their bodies were publicly exhibited. Peter reformed Russia to the hilt.

 

 

The Chronology Issuepeter fm europepeter to europe. Czar Peter went to Europe as a young man of 25 to sue for peace but returned home after 2 years another man of 40 years that mastered shipbuilding and a prize saber fight. The improved version of czar Peter smoked, spoke Russian with a German accent, and ordered all to call him Great from now on.

 

image1

Sophia sisterHis own family did not recognize him; consequently, he sent his wife Eudoxia to a monastery.

 

 

Sophia Alekseyevna of Russia.jpgpeter to europePeter disbanded the Czar`s guard of Streltsy that supported his half-sister Sophia who pretended to the throne. Actually, he made her a nun and sent her to a monastery too.

 

 

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "boyars to cut beards"Czar Peter ordered the nobility of boyars to cut beards, smoke tobacco, and dance ballet. Peter, once he became the Great one, beheaded the old imperial guard, created the modern land army that won, and built a fleet that sank.

 

 

avvacoumBetter yet, Czar Peter reformed the Orthodox church into total submission. Old Russian Orthodox Church called him Antichrist, so he created a Church Council Synod and proclaimed himself its head. This council had reformed the Russian Church into oblivion. Most of the stubborn Orthodox crowd was simply burnt alive to save their souls.

 

 

Karl xiiPeter performed a live trial of this new army of the king of Sweden, Karl XII, who also wanted to usurp the Russian throne too. Peter beat Karl’s army, rumored to be the best of this time in Europe into pulp in Poltava, Ukraine. Peter the Great promoted himself to the Emperor of Russia.

 

 

 

 

 

Katerina IHigh European aristocracy didn’t let Czar Peter marry in. Peter has raised a merchant military convoy woman Marta Skowrońska to Emperess Ekaterina I. He took her from his general, and the latter took Marta-Katerina from his caporal.

 

Russia paid a steep price for his reforms in blood, sweat, and tears. Peter did not quite succeed in his brazen reforms, so he left a Will ordering the Russian Empire to reconquer Europe again.

 

Europe vs RussiaFor the Dutch Czar Peter, the European customs were in all respects superior to Russian traditions. He ordered the German historians imported to Russia to found a Russian Academy and to rewrite Russian history in line with the consensual one practiced in Europe.

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "red square moscow"Czar Peter Great literally ruined Russia, lost at least a quarter of its population, tried to break into Europe, and made Russia into an awkward upstart and a laughing stock of Europe.

 

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "saint petersburg"For his own security, he moved the capital of Russia from Moscow to St Petersburg. The big idea was to build a northern Venice. The new capital was not only a window to Europe but a backdoor to Europe, just in case.

 

 

 

The monument glorifying the deeds of Russian Czar Peter Great was erected in 1997 and is a 98-meter-high (322 ft). Initially, it was designed by the Georgian designer Zurab Tsereteli as a monument for Columbus in New York to commemorate 500 years of the discovery of America. Russian post office printed millions of stamps but  New York said NIET, i.e., many thanks, but NO!!!  

 

 

 

 

 

Peter Moscow

Sculptor Zereteli morphed Columbus into Great Czar Peter to commemorate 300 years of the Russian Navy that took 100 years to hit the ocean waves.  It weighs around 1,000 tons and contains 600 tons of stainless steel, bronze, and copper.

The statue has courted controversy and was voted the tenth ugliest building in the world. Muscovites were skeptical about the whole idea: why pay tribute to Peter the Great, who loathed Moscow and moved the capital to St Petersburg.

 

 

 

 

 

Résultat de recherche d'images pour "Czar Peter equestrian statue"Moscow authorities, keen to get rid of the Peter the Great statue, offered to relocate it to Saint Petersburg, but this offer was refused by the latter as they already have a Dutch Czar Peter equestrian statue. 

 

Better yet,  to crown it all, the Russians are still taught by historians that Czar Peter was an authentic Russian!

 

Who controls the past controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past. — George Orwell, 1984

Has history been tampered with?

Refutation of the article from Wikipedia

atf-7volumes-clock-1024x576-jc-e1489076744403

Critics

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V6 

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology.Multidimensional Minimal SurfaceTheory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • Geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. The USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

More blogs:

Radiocarbon

ARE RADIOCARBON DATINGS TO BE TRUSTED?

The most popular method claiming the capability of dating ancient artifacts independently is the radiocarbon method. However, the accumulation of radiocarbon datings has exposed the difficulty of the method’s application.

The intensity of atmospheric radiation is affected by many cosmic factors. The radioactive carbon isotope production rate should also vary, and one needs to find a method that would take these variations into account. Apart from that, over the period when highways and industrial plants have been introduced by the civilization, a gigantic amount of carbon from the combustion of wood, coal, oil, turf, oil shales, and their products emanated into the atmosphere.

How does this atmospheric carbon affect the production of its radioactive isotope? In order to get veracious datings, one has to introduce complex corrections into calculations that reflect the changes in the content of the atmosphere over the last millennium. This issue, as well as a number of technical difficulties, casts a shadow of doubt over the precision of many radiocarbon datings.

W. F. Libby, the author of the method, wasn’t a historian and did not question the veracity of the Scaligerian datings, which had been used for the justification of his method. W. F. Libby had a priori been certain of the veracity of Scaligerian datings.

He wrote that they “…had no contradictions with the historians in what concerned ancient Rome and Egypt. We did not conduct anything in the way of extensive research related to this epoch [sic! ], since its chronology, in general, is known to the archaeologists a lot better than whatever our methods could estimate, so the archaeologists were doing us a favor providing specimens [which are actually destroyed, being burned in the radiocarbon measurement process”.

This confession of Libby’s tells us a lot since the deficiencies of Scaligerian chronology directly concern the regions and epochs that he and his team “did not research extensively enough.”

In what concerns the several reference measurements that were conducted on ancient artifacts, the situation is as follows. The radiocarbon dating of the Egyptian collection of J. H. Breasted “suddenly discovered the third object that we analyzed to have been contemporary,” according to Libby. “It was one of the findings… considered… to belong to the V dynasty [2563-2423 b.c., or roughly four millennia before our time]. It has proved a heavy blow indeed”.

Why could it have been such a blow? The physicists appear to have restored the veracious dating of the Egyptian specimen, proving the old one to have been wrong. What’s the problem with that?

The problem is, of course, the simple fact that any such dating would prove a menace to the Scaligerian chronology. Carrying on in that vein would lead Libby to compromise the entire history of ancient Egypt. The specimen that Libby had been careless enough to have claimed as modern had to be called a forgery and disposed of, which is only natural since the archaeologists could not have possibly let the heretical thought of the XVI-XVII century a.d. (considering the method’s precision of +/-1000 years) origin of the “ancient” Egyptian finding enter their minds.

The evidence that the proponents of the method used for proving the veracity of their method is rather insubstantial, with all the indications being indirect, the calculations imprecise, and the interpretation ambiguous, the main argument being the radiocarbon datings of the specimens whose age is known for certain is used for reference… Every time referential measurements are mentioned, everybody quotes the results of the first referential datings that were obtained for a very limited number of specimens
[sic!]”

Libby recognizes the absence of substantial referential statistics. Together with the millenarian dating deviations mentioned above (explained as a consequence of a series of forgeries), we may thus question the very validity of the method as used for dating specimens belonging to the period that we’re interested in, covering the two millennia preceding our century. This discussion does not concern the applicability of the method for geological purposes, however, where millenarian deviations are considered insubstantial.

W. F. Libby writes that “there was no deficiency in materials belonging to the epoch preceding ours by 3700 years for checking the precision and the dependability of the method”. However, there is nothing here to compare radiocarbon datings to, since there are no dated written documents dating from those epochs. Libby also informs us that his historian acquaintances “are perfectly certain of the veracity of the datings referring to the last 3750 years, however, their certainty does not spread as far as the
events that precede this era”.

In other words, the radiocarbon method has been used most extensively for a period of time that doesn’t allow the verification of the results by any other independent method, which makes life a lot easier for historians.

Could it be that the errors of the method are rather insubstantial and allow for an approximate dating of the specimens belonging to the last two or three millennia?
The state of affairs appears to be a graver one. The errors of radiocarbon dating are too great and too chaotic. They can amount to several millennia in what concerns contemporary and medieval objects.

Bill Bryson adds his grain of salt

Chicago in the 1940s was the place to be, Willard Libby was in the process of inventing radiocarbon dating allowing scientists to get an accurate reading of the age of bones and other organic remains something they had never been able to do before up to this time the oldest reliable dates went back no further than the first dynasty in Egypt about 3000 BC no one could confidently say for instance when the last ice sheets had retreated or at what time in the past the cro-magnon people had decorated the caves of Lascaux in France Libby’s idea was so useful that to historians he would be awarded by historians a Nobel prize for it in 1960  it was based on the realization that all living things have within them an isotope of carbon called carbon which begins to decay at a measurable rate the instant they die.

Carbon 14 has a half-life that is the time it takes for half of any sample to disappear of about 5 600 years so by working out how much of a given sample of carbon had decayed Libby could get a good fix on the age of an object though only up to a point after eight half-lives only 0.39 percent of the original radioactive carbon remains which is too little to make a reliable measurement, so radiocarbon dating works only for objects up to 40 000 or so years old.

Just as the technique was becoming widespread certain flaws within it became apparent. To begin with, it was discovered that one of the basic components of Libby’s formula known as the decay constant was out by about three percent by this time, however, thousands of measurements had been taken throughout the world, therefore rather than redate every one, scientists decided to keep the inaccurate constant. Thus Tim Flannery notes every raw radiocarbon date you read today is given as too young by around three percent the problems didn’t quite stop there.

It was also quickly discovered that carbon 14 samples can be easily contaminated with carbon from other sources a tiny scrap of vegetable matter, for instance, that has been collected with a sample and not noticed, albeit for younger samples those under 20 000 years or so slight contamination does not always matter so much but for older samples, it can be a serious problem because so few remaining atoms are being counted.

In the first instance, to borrow from Flannery is like miscounting by a dollar when counting to a thousand in the second it is more like miscounting by a dollar when you only have two dollars to count. Libby’s method was also based on the assumption that the amount of carbon 14 in the atmosphere and the rate at which it has been absorbed by living things has been consistent throughout history, in fact, it hasn’t been.

We now know that the volume of atmospheric carbon 14 varies depending on how well or not the earth’s magnetism is deflecting cosmic rays and that can vary significantly over time, this means that some carbon 14 dates are more dubious than others.  Among the more dubious are dates just around the time that people first came to the Americas which is one of the reasons the matter is so perennially in dispute.

Finally and perhaps a little unexpectedly readings can be thrown out by seemingly unrelated external factors such as the diets of those whose bones are being tested one recent case involved the long-running debate over whether syphilis originated in the new world or the old. Archaeologists in hull found that monks in a monastery graveyard had suffered from syphilis but the initial conclusion that the monks had done so before Columbus’s voyage was cast into doubt by the realization that they had eaten a lot of fish which could make their bones appear to be older than in fact they were. The monks may well have had syphilis but how it got to them and when remained tantalizingly unresolved.

Has history been tampered with?

Refutation of the article from Wikipedia

atf-7volumes-clock-1024x576-jc-e1489076744403

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

New Chronology “Do we know our history” (1st episode of 24)

New Chronology “What the story is based on” (episode 2 of 24)

New Chronology “Truth Can Be Calculated” (episode 3 of 24)

New Chronology “Alchemy of the Pyramids” (episode 4 of 24)

New Chronology “The Mystery of the Egyptian Zodiacs” (episode 5 of 24)

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York, and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology.Multidimensional Minimal SurfaceTheory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • The geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. The USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.

More blogs:

New Little Ice Age today

Don’t worry about the climate change that happens due to human activity, worry about the New Little Ice Age (NLIA) we are already in. Due to it, we have the rising instability of climate, increased volcanic activity, floods, social unrest instability that started in 2015 will continue for the next 25 years. Yes, humans are very much capable of spoiling the air they breathe, reducing the biodiversity where they nest but they are unable to change the climate on the planet.

The climate change caused by combustion engines, airplane flights, diesel tractors, and agriculture — has virtually no measurable impact on the temperature of the planet. The numerous pseudoscience studies allegedly prove the contrary result from generous grants from the interested third parties. Corollary:  Climate change due to human activity is a scare.

According to New Chronology, the timeline based on irrefutable facts and artifacts of Civilization does not exceed 1000 years. This theory does not cancel events, Pyramids, Great Walls, etc. but points to their more probable positions on the time axis.

Fact: Radiocarbon 14C dating is wrong as its calibration curve is based on samples delivered by Egyptologists of Alabama University who gave alleged age that suited them for samples. Historians have smuggled consensual chronology into the radiocarbon dating method. The Dendrochronology dating for the European chain of samples is statistically nonrepresentative prior to the XVIth century and is limited to 1200 years. Therefore their cross-calibration with radiocarbon is erroneous per see.

The radiocarbon method elaborated in 1945-49 by Dr.Libby compares the number of atoms of radioactive isotope C14 in an organic ‘ancient’ sample to be dated to the number of atoms of C14 in the same material today. The precision of the method is extremely sensitive to the impurities contained in the sample. The obtained age of the ‘ancient’ sample depends on the level of radioactive isotope C14 in the ‘ancient’ as well as the level of radioactive isotope C14 in ‘modern. Both levels are not stable and depend on the intensity of cosmic rays that interact with atmospheric nitrogen. The older a sample is, the fewer C14 atoms there are to be detected because the half-life of C14  (the period of time after which half of a given sample will have decayed) is about 5,730 years.
This method had initial exactitude at best of +/-100 years that turned into +/- 1000 years for the timeframe of A.D.  due to the unknown quantities of CO2 during industrial revolutions of the last 200 years.

 

A-H bomb testBetter yet, the unknown quantities of the isotope C14 were added to the atmosphere of Earth as a result of 499 tests of A and H-bombs by the USA, USSR, France, UK, China till 1963.

Corollary: climate data from consensual world history of alleged Ancient Rome, Greece, Persia, India, China in models forecasting future climate changes is irrelevant because of the erroneous chronology of the latter. Use in your studies only the data from ice probes from Greenland and the Antarctic, from ocean floor sediments.

Following the end of the Ice Age about 10 000 years ago human hunter-gatherers form clans and tribes in the deltas of the rivers of the Northern Hemisphere that were propitious for the survival and multiplication of species.

egypt stateancient kingsIn the timeframe of approximately 10 000 years due to the selective competition between clans and tribes, the populations of deltas reach by 500 AD  the social level of the proto-states.

 

Ice age warm ageNew Chronology strongly correlates with climate cycles in Europe of the last millennium confirmed by the ice probes from Greenland. Little Ice Age of 500-800 A.D. blocked the progress in Northern and Central Europe, the Warm Age of 800-1350 A.D. made accelerated progress and expansion of Civilization possible.

MutinyLittle Ice Ages in 1350-1850 A.D. pushed Europeans into a chain of religious, social,  industrial, commercial, transformations and revolutions.

 

Solar cyclesThe coincidence of a minimum of sunspots during the 11-year solar activity cycle and Milankovitch orbital cycles starting in 2019 suggest that facilitates the arrival of a new Little Ice Age, horrendous climate instability, floods, earthquakes, and increased volcanic activity in the 2019-2030 period.

Milankovich cyclesMilankovitch cycles point to changes in the amount and location of solar radiation reaching the Earth. This is known as solar forcing. The changes were experienced at 65° north due to the great amount of land at that latitude. Landmasses change temperature more quickly than oceans.

 

disorder publicThe probability of the religious, social,  industrial, commercial, transformations, upheavals, and revolutions for populations of the Americas and Eurasia in the period 2019-2030 is very considerable.

 

New Little Ice has started?

Dr. H.I. Abdussamatov

Pulkovo Observatory of the RAS, St. Petersburg, Russia

Abstract

Since 1990, the Sun has been in the declining phase of the quasi-bicentennial variation in total solar irradiance (TSI). The decrease in the portion of TSI absorbed by the Earth since 1990 has remained uncompensated by the Earth’s long-wave radiation into space at the previous high level because of the thermal inertia of the world’s oceans. As a result, the Earth has, and will continue to have, a negative average annual energy balance and a long-term adverse thermal condition.

The quasi-centennial epoch of the new Little Ice Age has started by the end of 2015 after the maximum phase of solar cycle 24. The start of a solar grand minimum is anticipated in the solar cycle 27 ± 1 in 2043 ± 11 and the beginning of the phase of deep cooling in the new Little Ice Age in 2060 ± 11. The gradual weakening of the Gulf Stream leads to stronger cooling in the zone of its action in western Europe and the eastern parts of the United States and Canada. Quasi-bicentennial cyclic variations of TSI together with successive very important influences of the causal feedback effects are the main fundamental causes of corresponding alternations in climate variation from warming to the Little Ice Age.

Has history been tampered with?

atf-7volumes-clock-1024x576-jc-e1489076744403

Refutation of the article from Wikipedia

History: Fiction or Science? Mediæval World Empire • Conquest of the Promised Land (New Chronology Volume 6)

Table of Contents V6

 LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction of Science?: Conquest of the world. Europe. China. Japan. Russia (Chronology) (Volume 5)

Table of Contents V5

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Russia. Britain. Byzantium. Rome. New Chronology vol.4.   

Table of Contents V4

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Astronomical methods as applied to chronology. Ptolemy’s Almagest. Tycho Brahe. Copernicus. The Egyptian zodiacs. New Chronology vol.3.

Table of Contents V3

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? The dynastic parallelism method. Rome. Troy. Greece. The Bible. Chronological shifts. New Chronology Vol.2 

Table of Contents V2

LOOK INSIDE History: Fiction or Science? Dating methods as offered by mathematical statistics. Eclipses and zodiacs. New Chronology Vol.I, 2nd revised Expanded Edition. 

Table of Contents V1

Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko

(List is non-exhaustive)

  • Differential Geometry and Topology
  • Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
  • Variational Principles in Topology. Multidimensional Minimal Surface Theory
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
  • Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
  • The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
  • Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
  • Symplectic Geometry. Methods and Applications.
  • Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
  • Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
  • The geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
  • USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
  • Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
  • USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
  • Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
  • Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
  • Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
  • Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
  • Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
  • Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
  • The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
  • Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
  • Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
  • Taylor and Francis, 2003.
  • Empirico-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
  • Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
  • Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
  • Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
  • Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
  • New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. USA. Lewiston.
  • Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
  • Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.