“Russia is a riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma,” Winston Churchill, 1938
“Human history becomes more and more, a race between education and catastrophe.” – George Orwell, 1920, Outline of History
This is a new edition made by A.T. Fomenko. It differs markedly from the previous ones.
We rely on a new chronology established based on mathematical methods and empirical-statistical results outlined in the books “Criticism and Methods of Chronology,” chap. 5-6, “Antiquity in the Middle Ages,” chap. 1.8, “Astronomical analysis of chronology “and also in chapter 19 of this book. The main chronological shifts discovered by A.T Fomenko in “ancient” and medieval history are presented on the global chronological map (GCM), created by A.T Fomenko in 1975-1979.
# We are trying to restore the correct chronology and history of antiquity using the methods of exact sciences. We presented the empirical-statistical and mathematical-astronomical methods of analyzing historical texts in the books mentioned above. In this book, we do not have the opportunity to re-explain the formal results obtained by these methods.
Much of what has been said in this book is still a hypothesis. Nevertheless, they rely on a new chronology, obtained by us by fairly formal independent methods. On the other hand, WE APPROVE – WITH FULL RESPONSIBILITY – THAT DOESN’T EXIST AND NEVER EXISTED A SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR THE SCALIGER DATES. Therefore, the history of antiquity will have to be written anew.
# Let’s pay attention to an important circumstance that sometimes escapes the attention of readers.
There are two layers in our books. The first is statistical, mathematical, and astronomical evidence related to chronology and only to it. The second layer is our attempts to give a new historical picture, consistent with mathematical chronology. The first layer seems boring to some readers. The second one is more interesting and exciting. Therefore, readers sometimes skip the “mathematical chapters” and go straight to the interpretational ones. And realizing how much they have to change in their minds, they naturally begin to ask: where is the evidence? After all, the authors propose a revision of many blocks of ancient history. This is a serious thing.
OUR “INTERPRETATION CHAPTERS,” OF course, ARE NOT IN ANY MATHEMATICAL PROOF. They contain some rationale, medieval evidence we have collected, linguistic considerations, etc. The purpose of the “interpretive chapters” is this: we are trying to recreate the building of a consistent history of antiquity and realizing that this is just one of many attempts. It may be erroneous, perhaps, in some particular details. But without it, understanding our main chronological results is very difficult. After all, readers want to understand “what really happened”? And we give an APPROXIMATE answer. We are being told sometimes: that we have little or no evidence. But this is not the case. We have proof. And there are many of them. But they are contained in other chapters, other books, and scientific articles.
# We do not claim the present to be a complete study of the Bible as a historical source. Our book is mainly devoted to one topic – how the pages of the Bible describe the medieval Russia-Horde of the XIV-XVII centuries, that is, the Great = “Mongolian” Empire.
Our interpretation of the Bible is in many ways new and probably unusual for an unprepared reader. First of all, it is based on the mathematical and statistical studies of the Bible, set out in “Criticism and Methods of Chronology,” chapters 5-6, and “Antiquity in the Middle Ages,” chap.7. And in particular, the new chronology, which claims that the Bible describes medieval European events. A natural question arises: which ones? This book is an attempt to answer it.
But the Bible describes a lot of events. Therefore, we have decided to restrict ourselves for now to just one topic, AKA Russia-Horde, on the pages of the Bible. This choice is dictated by the leading role of Russia-Horde in medieval history, see the book “Empire.” Therefore, it is natural to expect that the Bible, as the most important and voluminous primary source on the history of the Middle Ages, should have described the Great = “Mongolian” Empire in a rather vivid form.
Why have such traces – in fact, quite obvious – not been found in the Bible before us? Why haven’t other scientists noticed them? After all, among them were some of the most prominent scholars of the Bible, who devoted their entire lives to studying the Bible. The reader has the right to ask – what is the advantage of the authors of this book over these respected scientists?
The answer is as follows. Our main advantage is the new chronology. Within the framework of the previous, Scaligerian version, a Bible researcher, coming across traces of medieval Russian-Horde history, simply could not understand them. A striking example is the famous Bible passages that directly speak of Ro’she or Ro’s, the prince of Meshech and Tuval. Here the name Ros, as is known, was considered by medieval Byzantine authors to be the name of Rus. See “New Chronology of Rus,” ch.3: 10. Modern commentators, being convinced that the biblical events took place many centuries before our era – when Russia, according to Scaliger, did not yet exist as an organized state – accuse the Byzantines that they “did not know” history. In a sense, this is true: the medieval Byzantines at that time really did not yet know the future (and erroneous) Scaligerian chronology, which had not yet been invented.
This example explains the psychological reasons why previous Bible students either “did not notice” such evidence or considered them isolated late insertions. Or they were generally interpreted as indications of some mysterious and vague “ancient events.” And only after the “Scaligerian ban on chronology” is lifted, does everything start to fall into place. Apparently, no one did this before us. This is our advantage. We are in a completely different position from our predecessors. It turns out that first, it was necessary to understand the chronology and only then proceed to the interpretation of the biblical historical evidence. Note that this circumstance is far from obvious.
Changing the chronology significantly changes the interpretation of the texts. It turns out that the shifting of dates of biblical events in the Middle Ages unexpectedly opens up a lot of new things in the pages of the Bible. Knowing what it really says about the Middle Ages, we are surprised to begin to recognize in the biblical descriptions the vivid events of medieval history familiar to us. Including the Russian Horde. Almost immediately, we come across very frank and numerous descriptions of the great = “Mongol” conquest. And it would be strange if the largest event of the Middle Ages was not reflected in the Bible.
# In our research, we used every version of the Bible available to us and also drew on the work of several generations of its commentators. We had at our disposal the following editions of the Bible and other related texts. For exact bibliographic references, see the bibliography.
@@@ Bible. Books of the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments in Russian translation with parallel passages and appendices . This is a canonical translation of the Bible into Russian, slightly edited in the 20th century, made in the 19th century at the direction of the Holy Synod. In recent years, many reprints have been made from this edition, differing only in the location of the attached maps and in the format. In particular, this is the publication of the Russian Bible Society (M., 1995). We will refer to this Bible as a SYNODAL TRANSLATION. We draw the attention of our readers that when we give a reference to the Bible without specifying the edition, we always mean just such an easily accessible canonical translation.
@@@ Explanatory Bible . This is a canonical synodal translation, provided with detailed, primarily historical, commentaries by the famous scientist A.P. Lopukhin.
@@@ Bible. Books of the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. In Russian translation with appendices .
@@@ Teaching. The Pentateuch of Moses . This is a newly completed scientific translation of the Pentateuch of Moses. The author of the translation and comments is Doctor of Historical Sciences I.Sh. Shifman.
@@@ Canonical Church Slavonic Bible . This translation, which is still used today by the Orthodox Church, was compiled and revised in the first half of the 18th century. We will refer to it as the Elizabethan Bible.
@@@ Ostrog Bible. Ostrog, 1581 . This is the first printed Bible in the Church Slavonic language, published by the famous printer Ivan Fedorov in the city of Ostrog, at the insistence of Prince Konstantin Ostrozhsky, in the 16th century.
@@@ A handwritten Bible allegedly of 1499, the so-called Gennady Bible . Of the ten volumes announced for publication until the end of 2008, only four volumes have been released so far: volume 4 (Psalms), volumes 7 and 8 (New Testament), and also volume 9 (appendices, scientific description). For some reason, the rest of the volumes of the Gennadiy Bible have not been published yet.
@@@ Bible, allegedly published by Francysk Skaryna in 1517-1519 .
@@@ Hebrew text of the Old Testament (Tanach) .
@@@ Die Bibel. Oder die Ganze Heilige Schrift des Alten and Neuen Testaments . This is the Bible in the famous German translation of Martin Luther allegedly of the 16th century. However, since the time of Luther, this text seems to have undergone serious editing.
@@@ The Holy Bible, containing Old and New Testaments … Appointed to be read in Churches . This is the canonical translation of the Bible into English.
@@@ The Holy Bible, containing Old and New Testaments … Authorized King James version . This is a canonical translation made under the direction of King James of England at the beginning of the 17th century.
@@@ The English version
of the polyglot Bible … .
@@@ Bible Encyclopedia . A useful guide to biblical events, names, and geography.
@@@ Book of Mormon . It is sometimes called the Bible of Mormons.
@@@ Josephus Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews . This is another version of the Bible with a more secular presentation. He also occasionally mentions events or details that are not found in other versions of the Bible.