History: Fiction or Science?- Chronology Vol. 6

“Human history becomes more and more, a race between education and catastrophe.” – George Orwell, 1920, Outline of History


This is a new edition made by A.T. Fomenko. et al, It differs markedly from the previous ones.

We rely on a new chronology established on the basis of mathematical methods and empirical-statistical results outlined in Chron1, Chapters 5-6; Chron2, Chapters 1, 8; Chron3, and also in Chapter 19 of this book. The primary chronological shifts discovered by A.T. Fomenko in “ancient” and mediaeval history is presented on the global chronological map (GCM), created by A.T. Fomenko in 1975-1979.

We are trying to restore the correct chronology and history of antiquity using the methods of exact sciences. We presented the empirical-statistical and mathematical-astronomical methods of analyzing historical texts in the books mentioned above. In this book, we do not have the opportunity to re-explain the formal results obtained by these methods.

Much of what has been said in this book is still a hypothesis. Nevertheless, they rely on a new chronology, obtained by us by fairly formal independent methods. On the other hand, we approve—with full responsibility—that doesn’t exist and never existed a scientific basis for the Scaliger dates. Therefore, the history of antiquity will have to be written anew.

Let us pay attention to an important circumstance that sometimes escapes the attention of readers. There are two layers in our books. The first is statistical, mathematical, and astronomical evidence related to chronology and only to it. The second layer is our attempts to give a new historical picture, consistent with mathematical chronology. The first layer seems boring to some readers, the second one is more interesting and exciting. Therefore, readers sometimes skip the “mathematical chapters” and go straight to the interpretational ones. And realizing how much they have to change their minds, they naturally begin to ask: where is the evidence? After all, the authors propose a revision of many blocks of ancient history. This is a serious thing.

Our “interpretation chapters,” of course, are not in any way mathematical proof. They contain some rationale, mediaeval evidence we have collected, linguistic considerations, etc. The purpose of the “interpretive chapters” is this: we are trying to recreate the building of a consistent history of antiquity. Realizing that this is just one of many attempts. It may be erroneous, perhaps, in some particular details. But without it, the understanding of our main chronological results is rather challenging. After all, readers want to understand “what really happened”? And we give an approximate answer. We are being told sometimes: you have little or no evidence. But this is not the case. We have proof. And there are many of them. But they are contained in other chapters, other books, and scientific articles.

We do not claim the present to be a complete study of the Bible as a historical source. Our book is mainly devoted to one topic—how the pages of the Bible describe the mediaeval Russia-Horde of the XIV– XVII century, i.e., the Great = “Mongolian” Empire.

Our interpretation of the Bible is in many ways new and probably unusual for an unprepared reader. First of all, it is based on the mathematical and statistical studies of the Bible, set out in Chron1, Chapters 5-6, and Chron2, Chapter 7. And, in particular, on the new chronology, which claims that the Bible describes mediaeval European events. A natural question arises: which ones? This book is an attempt to answer it.

But the Bible describes a lot of events. Therefore, we have decided to restrict ourselves for now to just one topic, namely, Russia-Horde on the pages of the Bible. This choice is dictated by the leading role of Russia-Horde in mediaeval history (q.v. in Chron5). Therefore, it is natural to expect that the Bible, as the most important and voluminous primary source on the history of the Middle Ages, should have described the Great = “Mongolian” Empire in a rather vivid form. Why have not such traces—in fact, quite obvious—been found in the Bible before us? Why haven’t other scientists noticed them? After all, among them were some of the most prominent scholars of the Bible, who devoted their entire lives to studying the Bible. The reader has the right to ask: what is the advantage of the authors of this book over those respected scientists?

The answer is as follows. Our main advantage is the new chronology. Within the framework of the previous, Scaligerian version, a Bible researcher, coming across traces of mediaeval Russian-Horde history, simply could not understand them. A striking example is the famous Bible passages that directly speak of Róshe or Rós, the prince of Meshech and Tubal. Here the name Ros, as is known, was considered by mediaeval Byzantine authors to be the name of Rus (q.v. in Chron4, Chapters 3:10). Modern commentators, being convinced that the biblical events took place many centuries before our era (when Russia, according to Scaliger, did not yet exist as an organized state), accuse the Byzantines that they “did not know” history. In a sense, this is true: the mediaeval Byzantines at that time really did not yet know the future (and erroneous) Scaligerian chronology, which had not yet been invented.

This example explains the psychological reasons why previous Bible students either “did not notice” such evidence, or considered them isolated late insertions. Or they were generally interpreted as indications of some mysterious and vague “ancient events.” And only after the “Scaligerian ban on chronology” is lifted, everything starts to fall into place. Apparently, no one really did this before us. This is our advantage. We are in a completely different position from our predecessors. It turns out that first, it was necessary to understand the chronology and only then proceed to interpret of the biblical historical evidence. Note that this circumstance is far from obvious.

Significantly changing the chronology changes the interpretation of the texts. It turns out that the shifting of dates of biblical events in the Middle Ages unexpectedly opens up a lot of new things in the pages of the Bible. Knowing what it really says about the Middle Ages, we are surprised to begin to recognize in the biblical descriptions the vivid events of mediaeval history familiar to us. Including that of Russia-Horde. Almost immediately, we come across very frank and numerous descriptions of the Great = “Mongol” conquest. And it would be strange if the largest event of the Middle Ages did not reflect in the Bible.

In our research, we used every version of the Bible available to us and also drew on the work of several generations of its commentators. We had at our disposal the following editions of the Bible and other related texts. (For exact bibliographic references, see the bibliography.)


The Bible. Books of the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments in Russian translation with parallel passages and appendices ([621]). A canonical translation of the Bible into Russian, slightly edited in the XX century, made in the XIX century at the direction of the Holy Synod. In recent years, many reprints have been made from this edition, differing only in the location of the attached maps and in the format. In particular, this is the publication of the Russian Bible Society (M., 1995). We will refer to this Bible as a Synodal translation. We draw the attention of our readers that when we give a reference to the Bible without specifying the edition, we always mean just such an easily accessible canonical translation.


Explanatory Bible ([845]). A canonical synodal translation, provided with detailed, primarily historical, commentaries by the famous scientist A. P. Lopukhin.

The Bible. Books of the Holy Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. In Russian translation, with appendices ([69]).

Teaching. The Pentateuch of Moses ([862]). A newly completed scientific translation of the Pentateuch of Moses. The author of the translation and comments is Doctor of Historical Sciences Ilya Shifman.

Canonical Church Slavonic Bible ([70]). This translation, which is still used today by the Orthodox Church, was compiled and revised in the first half of the XVIII century. We will refer to it as the Elizabethan Bible.

The Ostrog Bible (Ostrog, 1581; [621]). The first printed Bible in the Church Slavonic language, published by the printer Ivan Fedorov in the city of Ostrog, at the insistence of Prince Konstantin Ostrozhsky, in the XVI century.

The so-called Gennady’s Bible ([745]). A handwritten Bible, allegedly of 1499. Of the ten volumes announced for publication until the end of 2008, only four volumes have been released so far: volume 4 (Psalms), volumes 7 and 8 (New Testament), and also volume 9 (appendices, scientific description). The rest of the volumes of the Gennady’s Bible have not been published yet for some reason.

The Bible, allegedly published in 1517–1519 by Francysk Skaryna ([71]).

The Hebrew text of the Old Testament (Tanach) ([266]).

Die Bibel, oder die ganze Heilige Schrift des Alten und Neuen Testaments ([1104]). The famous German translation of the Bible made by Martin Luther, allegedly of the XVI century. However, since the time of Luther, this text seems to have undergone sever editing.

The Holy Bible, containing Old and New Testaments… Appointed to be read in Churches ([1450]). The canonical translation of the Bible into English.

The Holy Bible, containing Old and New Testaments… Authorized King James Version ([1451]). A canonical translation done under the direction of King James of England at the beginning of the XVII century.

The English Version of the Polyglot Bible… ([1449]).

The Bible Encyclopedia ([66]). A useful guide to biblical events, names, geography.

The Book of Mormon ([397]). It is sometimes called the Bible of Mormons.

Josephus Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews ([878]).

Another version of the Bible with a more secular presentation. Flavius also occasionally mentions events or details that are not found in other versions of the Bible.

We quote the Russian text of the Bible unless otherwise stated, according to the edition [621].

At the end of this book, in Annex 4, all the biblical quotes used by us are presented in the form in which they are present in the Slavic text of the Ostrog Bible ([621]), less often in the Elizabethan ([70]) or, in isolated cases, according to publications [745] or [266]. All Church Slavonic quotations are made in the “semi-ustav” font.

There is no verse numbering in the Ostrog Bible, therefore in quotations from it the verse numbers are given by edition [70]. All of its spelling features are reproduced in quotations from the Ostrog Bible (superscripts, extension letters, etc.), with the only exception of the use in the original of different variants of the outline of some letters. This great work was done very carefully by the candidate of physical and mathematical sciences M. I. Grinchuk (Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics of Moscow State University), during the publication of our book [BR]:2. Links to these quotes are given in the form “See Church Slavonic quotation ***.” Instead of the asterisks, there is a quote number.

Since in the Ostrog Bible the words are not always separated by spaces, in quotations from it, the missing spaces are added in the form of “” symbol. The “/” sign means line breaks. In the Ostrog Bible itself, no characters, such as the modern hyphen, were used when transferring a part of a word to a new line. In addition, in the quotes we cite in square brackets, we give the decoding of the numbers, which in the original are indicated by letters under the title. The reader accustomed to the modern version of Church Slavonic orthography should take into account such a feature of the Ostrog Bible as the frequent placement of extension letters one position to the left of their “natural” place. Accent marks also sometimes stand not above the vowel but the adjacent consonant. For some of the names mentioned in the Bible, the spelling according to the Hebrew Old Testament [266] is added, accompanied by a conditional transcription in Russian letters, q.v. in fig. 0.5.

We emphasize that our research is purely scientific and does not pursue political, social or religious purposes. Even when we analyze religious sources, including the Bible, we are only interested in the historical context of the documents. We do not touch upon issues of faith, and we have deep respect for the feelings of believers. Our research is in no way connected with different interpretations of specific purely religious issues. In particular, our book does not touch upon the foundations of various religions for which the Bible is the Holy book. Since the religious teaching stated in the Bible, we are not discussing them at all. This book focuses only on the historical and by no means the theological aspect of Bible study. We want to emphasize that all possible interpretations of our scientific chronological results by other authors or critics of our work in any theological sense remain entirely on the conscience of the interpreters.

Dozens of people helped us in our difficult work. We express our deepest gratitude to all of them for their help and support.


A. T. Fomenko, G. V. Nosovskiy,

Moscow State University.