“History: Fiction or Science?” series of 26 books is the most explosive tractate on history ever written proving irrefutably that the timeline of the civilization takes into account only the irrefutably dated non-contradictory events and artifacts barely exceed 1000 years!
Why and when were the Crusades? Christianity originated in the Byzantine Empire in XII century as an Oriental Orthodox Catholic religion that went in the XII-XV centuries through the subsequent splits, and mutations into the competing Orthodox, Catholic, Western, Eastern, and Oriental Christianity, Mithraism, Judaism, Buddism, and Islam. Crusades of 1189-1192 AD and 1199-1204 AD to Jerusalem-Constantinople were military operations under the banner of Christianity by the followers and relatives of Jesus idem Emperor Andronicus was killed during a religious mutiny. Crusades ended with the Sack of Constantinople in 1204. Crusades provoked a counter-reaction of Islam that by the XIII century started to morph from an early Christian belief into a powerful religious movement, forming a Caliphate that spans from Middle Asia to Spain. Constantinople was taken by Mehmet the Conqueror in 1453, renamed Istanbul, and Byzantium became a part of the Muslim Ottoman Empire.
About the Author: Dr.Fomenko, Anatoly. Born in 1945. Full Member (Academician) of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Full Member of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, Full Member of the International Higher Education Academy of Sciences, Doctor of Physics and Mathematics, Professor, Head of the Moscow State University Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. Solved the classical Plateau s Problem from the theory of minimal spectral surfaces. Author of the theory of invariants and topological classification of integrable Hamiltonian dynamic systems. Laureate of the 1996 National Premium in Mathematics of the Russian Federation for a cycle of works on the Hamiltonian dynamic system multitude invariance theory. Author of 180 scientific publications, 26 monographs, and textbooks on mathematics, a specialist in geometry and topology, variational calculus, symplectic topology, Hamiltonian geometry and mechanics, computational geometry. Author of a number of books on the development of new empirical-statistical methods and their application to the analysis of historical chronicles as well as the chronology of Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
Also by Anatoly T. Fomenko
(List is non-exhaustive)
- Differential Geometry and Topology
- Plenum Publishing Corporation. 1987. USA, Consultants Bureau, New York and London.
- Variational Principles in Topology. Multidimensional Minimal Surface Theory
- Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
- Topological variational problems. – Gordon and Breach, 1991.
- Integrability and Nonintegrability in Geometry and Mechanics
- Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1988.
- The Plateau Problem. vols.1, 2
- Gordon and Breach, 1990. (Studies in the Development of Modern Mathematics.)
- Symplectic Geometry.Methods and Applications.
- Gordon and Breach, 1988. Second edition 1995.
- Minimal surfaces and Plateau problem. Together with Dao Chong Thi
- USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
- Integrable Systems on Lie Algebras and Symmetric Spaces. Together with V. V. Trofimov. Gordon and Breach, 1987.
- Geometry of Minimal Surfaces in Three-Dimensional Space. Together with A. A.Tuzhilin
- USA, American Mathematical Society. In: Translation of Mathematical Monographs. vol.93, 1991.
- Topological Classification of Integrable Systems. Advances in Soviet Mathematics, vol. 6
- USA, American Mathematical Society, 1991.
- Tensor and Vector Analysis: Geometry, Mechanics and Physics. – Taylor and Francis, 1988.
- Algorithmic and Computer Methods for Three-Manifolds. Together with S.V.Matveev
- Kluwer Academic Publishers, The Netherlands, 1997.
- Topological Modeling for Visualization. Together with T. L. Kunii. – Springer-Verlag, 1997.
- Modern Geometry. Methods and Applications. Together with B. A. Dubrovin, S. P. Novikov
- Springer-Verlag, GTM 93, Part 1, 1984; GTM 104, Part 2, 1985. Part 3, 1990, GTM 124.
- The basic elements of differential geometry and topology. Together with S. P. Novikov
- Kluwer Acad. Publishers, The Netherlands, 1990.
- Integrable Hamiltonian Systems: Geometry, Topology, Classification. Together with A. V. Bolsinov
- Taylor and Francis, 2003.
- Empirical-Statistical Analysis of Narrative Material and its Applications to Historical Dating.
- Vol.1: The Development of the Statistical Tools. Vol.2: The Analysis of Ancient and Medieval
- Records. – Kluwer Academic Publishers. The Netherlands, 1994.
- Geometrical and Statistical Methods of Analysis of Star Configurations. Dating Ptolemy’s
- Almagest. Together with V. V Kalashnikov., G. V. Nosovsky. – CRC-Press, USA, 1993.
- New Methods of Statistical Analysis of Historical Texts. Applications to Chronology. Antiquity in the Middle Ages. Greek and Bible History. Vols.1, 2, 3. – The Edwin Mellen Press. USA. Lewiston.
- Queenston. Lampeter, 1999.
- Mathematical Impressions. – American Mathematical Society, USA, 1990.